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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Aggression: Hurting Others.docx

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University of Waterloo
Hilary B Bergsieker

Chapter 9 Aggression- physical or verbal behaviour intended to hurt someone (not a painful dentist visit) Hostile aggression- aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself (goal = to injure/kill) Instrumental aggression- aggression that is a means to some other end (terrorism) Freud thought aggression was self-destructive, Konrad Lrenz thought adaptive, but both agreed it was instinctive- an innate, unlearned behaviour pattern exhibited by all members of a species NEURAL No one area of brain, but stimulating or destimulating certain areas (like amygdala) have influence Frontal cortex less active in murderers. GENETIC Breeding dogs for aggression/ identical twins have similar criminal records Nature and nurture interact BIOCHEMICAL 1. Alchohol a. Intoxicated people administer stronger shocks b. Assailants often have been drinking c. Linked with violent behaviour Reduces self awareness 2. Testosterone a. Diminish testosterone, aggressive tendencies subdued b. After age 25, both testosterone and violence decrease c. Handling a gun increases testosterone levels d. High testosterone levels linked with delinquency 3. Low serotonin a. Low levels linked with violence 4. Interaction between bio and behaviour a. Testosterone rises in winning fans and lowers in losing fans b. Socially anxious men’s testosterone drops after losing c. People react aggressively to conflict and provocation RESPONSE TO FRUSTRATION Frustration-aggresion theory- the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress Frustration- the blocking of goal-directed behaviour (broken vending machine) direct outward aggression intigation to aggress displaced frustration (goal) inward other additional aggression responses (e.g. withdrawal) Displacement- the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target guy humiliated by his boss goes home and berates his wife who yells at the son who kicks the dog…. Experiment: provode some but not all participants, then ask how long the participant thinks the next participant should hold their hands in ice water. Provoked studends recommended longer times Revised: Sometimes frustration increased aggressiveness, sometimes not (if understandable, like hearing aid stops working vs not paying attention) unjustified anger + aggression frustration aggression cues Frustration leads to anger, which arises when somebody could have chosen to act differently Can be unconnected to deprivation (the most sexually frustrated people are not celibate) Relative deprivation- the perception that one is less well-off than other to whom one compares oneself (perceived inequities by minority groups) LEARNED SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR Rewards: become ferocious fighter, intimidate other children, score more goals, get attention by media (kill one scare thousands) Observational learning: social learning theory- the theory that we learn social behaviour by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished bobo doll Family influences When fathers are absent, violence increases Culture like “macho men” men prepared to be warriors Northern men less effected by insult than southern men aversive rewards and experiences costs • anticipated • emotional arousal consequences dependancy, achievement,withdrawal and resignation, aggression, bodily syptoms, self- anaesthetizationwith drugs and alcholol, constructiv eproblem solving INFLUENCES ON AGGRESSION 1. Aversive incidents: a. Pain a. Rats attack each other when shocked b. Both physical and psychological pain (frustration) c. More irritable when hold hand under ice water than luke warm water b. Heat a. Offensive odours, cigarette smoke, and air pollution linked with aggressiv
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