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PSYCH 253 (36)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Sources of Prejudice.docx

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Hilary B Bergsieker

Chapter 11: Sources of Prejudice Prejudice- a negative prejudgement of a group and its individual members Sterotypes- a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people stereotypes can be overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information; trouble comes when they are wrong Discrimination- unjustifiable negative behaviour toward a group or its members Rasicm- 1) an individual’s prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviour toward people of a given race or 2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race sexism-1) an individual’s prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behaviour toward people of a given sex, or 2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex. Although overt expression of prejudice has decreased ,subtle form are still widespread  Subtle forms Surface when they can hide behind screen of some other motive – exaggerating ethnic differences, feeling less admiration for immigrant minorities, rejecting for supposedly non-racias reasons “modern” or “cultural racism”  Autonomic prejudice Different explicit and implicit Prejudice can occur outside of people’s awareness Primed with black face, people may react more aggressively to experimenters initially only annoying request SOCIAL SOURCES Unequal status breeds prejudice Powerful men who stereotype their female subordinates give them plenty of praise, but fewer resources thus undermining their performance. We see other groups as likable or competent, but not both. We respect competent and like non- competant Social dominance orientation- a motivation to have your own group be dominant over other social groups; tend to view people in hierarchies; promoted by high-status position Status breeds prejudice, but some people seek to maintain status  Authoritarian personality o Hostility toward jews often coexisted with hostility toward other minorities o Prejudice less an attitude specific to one group than a way of thinking about those who are different o Ethnocentric- believing in the superiority of your own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups o Faced harsh discipline as a child o Surge during times of economic recession o Fears surface as prejudice o People in high dominance orientation(related to group status) and authoritarian personality (concern with security and control) are among the most prejudice  Religion o when they benefit from unequality, need to invoke religion to sanctify the present order. 1. Church members express more racial prejudice 2. Professing traditional or fundamentalist Christian beliefs express more prejudice than those professing less traditional beliefs BUT  Faithful church attenders less prejudiced than occasional attenders  Religious people more welcoming of person of different race living next door  Protestant ministers and roman catholic priests support human rights, confessing church organized into nazi regime Define church as willing to agree with traditional beliefs = more prejudice  Conformity o Prejudice maintained o Those who conform to more social norms are more prejudiced o Maintain gender prejudice INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORTS Schools, goverments, media reinforce dominant cultural attitudes 2/3rds of male photos devoted to face, but less than ½ devoted to female face People with more prominent faces seen as more intelligent and ambitious MOTIVATIONAL SOURCES “displaced aggression” – redirect hostility Competition is important source of frustration that can fuel prejudice Realistic group conflict theory- the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY We define ourselves by our groups In-group- “us” a group of people who share a sense of belonging a feeling of common identity Out-group- “them” a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their in- group 1. Catagorize (lables) 2. Identify (in group) 3. Compare (out group) Lacking positive personal identity, people seek self esteem by identifying with a group Individual achievement Personal identity and Self-serving pride bias SELF ESTEEM group achievement social identity and pride In-group bias Ingroup bias- favour your own group – results from perceiving your group is good, not other group is bad Doesn’t take much
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