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PSYCH 257 (72)
Chapter 10

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Allison Kelly

PSYCH 257 Textbook NotesChapter 10 Sexual Disorder and Gender Identity Disorder3 kinds of sexual behaviour are associated with a substantial impairment in functioning1 Gender Identity Disorder disturbance in a persons sense of identity as a male or a female2 Sexual Dysfunction individuals who find it hard to function adequately during sex3 Paraphilia sexual arousal that occurs primarily in the context of inappropriate objects of individualsWhat is NormalGENDER DIFFERENCES Much higher percent of men than women report masturbation 8048 o Frequency of masturbation for men was also higher Endorsement of many types of sexual fantasy was significantly higher for men than womeno Except for wearing erotic garments in which women participated more in Men expressive a more permissive attitude towards sex than women Women tend to report the experience of passionate and romantic feelings as well as an openness to sexual experience Women also hold an embarrassed conservative or selfconscious schema that sometimes conflicts with more positive aspects of their sexual attitudeMen show feelings of power independence and aggression in sexuality passionate loving and open to experience The majority of individuals engage in heterosexual vaginal intercourse in the context of a relationship with one partner Sexual attraction and behaviour are closely tied to the evolutionary root of producing more offspringCULTURAL DIFFERENCES The perceived age of social acceptance for having intercourse for the first time is slightly lower in Sweden than North America More Swedish women use some form of contraceptives during their first intercourse 737567Premarital sexual behaviour is culturally accepted and encouraged in some societies while it may be unaccepted and discouraged in other societies Normal sexual behaviour in one culture may not be necessarily normal in anotherTHE DEVELOPMENT OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION Homosexuality is reported to run in families Homosexuality is more common between monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins or siblingso Associated with differential exposure to hormones at an early age possibly before birth o However approximately 50 of monozygotic twins with the same genetic structure and environment growing up do not have the same sexual orientation o Males growing up with an older brother are more likely to be homosexuals with each additional brother increasing the odds of homosexualityenvironmental influences are just as important as biological ones Brain structure may be different in homosexuals and heterosexuals Individuals with homosexual orientations have a 39 greater chance of being lefthanded or mixedhandedGenes do influence sexual orientation but the specific genes are currently unknown Biological psychological and environmental variables are combined to form sexual orientationBems theoretical model exotic becomes erotic Sextypical atypical Biological VariableChildhood Temperaments activityplaymate preferenceseg genes prenatal eg aggression activity gender conformity hormoneslevel noncomformityFeeling different from Nonspecific arousal to Erotic or sexual attration opposite or samesex opposite or samesex to opposite or samesex peers dissimilar peerspeersunfamiliar exotico A boy who is less aggressive and displays more girltypical activities would feel more different towards his own sex making his own sex more exoticforeign Sexual attraction in the later years would be to the more exotic groupGender Identity Disorder psychological dissatisfaction with own biological gender a disturbance in the sense of identity as a male or female The primary goal is not sexual arousal but rather to live the life of the opposite gender Different from transvestic fetishism wearing opposite genders clothing but not for sexual gratification and intersex individuals no physical abnormalities DSMIVTR does not list sexual attraction as a criteria for having gender identity disorderso In fact a biological male with a feminine identity may be attracted to females biological female with a masculine identity may be attracted to maleswomen after surgery were gay men rare occurrence men after surgery were lesbian women Autogynephiliamaletofemale individuals attracted to females after surgery are said to have a different development patterno Development pattern male begins to have strong sexual arousal fantasies about dressing as a female fantasies develop into wanting to become a woman Gender identity disorder is rare occurring 3 times more frequently in males than females In some cultures specifically Native Americans individuals with a gender identity disorder are labelled berdache o Holding high positions of honour and respect in the tribe shaman wisdom figure healing powersrdo Accepted in their society as distinct from men and women 3 gender similar to the Samoan Faafafine CAUSES Estimated that genes contribute 62 of the vulnerability of a gender identity disorder 38 are from unique environment events 70 of the vulnerability for crossgender behaviour comes from genetics o Exception Finding where one of the monozygotic twins had genetic identity disorder and one did not
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