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PSYCH 257 (72)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 PSYCH 257

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Uzma Rehman

Chapter 4: Research Methods Considerations in Research Design *Balancing internal vs. external validity *Internal validity – Confidence that effects are due to the independent variable *External validity – Extent to which the findings are generalizable *Ways to increase internal validity by minimizing confounds *Use of control groups *Use of random assignment procedures *Use of analogue models *Relation between internal and external validity Different types of research designs The Case Study Factors That Can Limit a Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (r) *Homogenous group *Unreliable measurement instrument *Nonlinear relationship *Ceiling or Floor with measurement Ceiling or Floor Effect Interpreting Correlations *Why it is not possible to infer causality from a correlation? 1. Directionality *Statistical attempt to overcome the directionality problem: cross-lagged panel correlation *Take two sets of correlations separated by a time interval Interpreting Correlations contd. 2. Third-variable Problem: - What is it? Z / \ v v X Y - Statistical attempt to overcome the 3 variable problem: partial correlations The Experimental Method *An experiment is a research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the manipulation’s effect on another variable is observed *Manipulated variable = independent variable *Variable being observed = dependent variable *Allows researchers to ask such questions as: Does therapy X reduce symptoms of disorde
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