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PSYCH 257 (72)
Chapter 1-5

Terms for Ch. 1-5

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Allison Kelly

CHAPTER ONE- Abnormal Behaviour in Historical Context BEHAVIOUR THERAPY Array of therapy methods based on the principles of behavioural and cognitive science as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems. It considers specific behaviours rather than inferred conflict as legitimate targets for change. (P. 25) BEHAVIOURAL MODEL Explanation of human behaviour, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology. (P. 23) BEHAVIOURISM Explanation of human behaviour, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology. (P. 17) BLOOD-INJURY-INJECTION PHOBIA Unreasonable fear and avoidance of exposure to blood, injury, or the possibility of an injection. Victims experience fainting and a drop in blood pressure. (P. 3) CATHARSIS Rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy (P. 18) CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus event that does not (a neutral stimulus). After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the desired response. (P. 24) CLINICAL DESCRIPTION Details of the combination of behaviours, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder. (P.8) COURSE Pattern of development and change of a disorder over time. (P. 8) DEFENCE MECHANISMS Common patterns of behaviour, often adaptive coping styles when they occur in moderation, observed in response to particular situations. In psychoanalysis, these are thought to be unconscious processes originating in the ego. (P. 20) DREAM ANALYSIS Psychoanalytic therapy method in which dream contents are examined as symbolic of id impulses and intrapsychic conflicts. (P. 22) EGO In psychoanalysis, the physical entity responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy the id drives. (p.19) EGO PSYCHOLOGY Derived from psychoanalysis, this theory emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders to failure of the ego to manage impulses and internal conflicts. (p.21) ETIOLOGY Cause or source of a disorder. (P. 8) EXTINCTION Learning process in which a response maintained by reinforcement in operant conditioning or pairing in classical conditioning decreases when that reinforcement or pairing is removed; also the procedure of removing that reinforcement or pairing. (P. 24) FREE ASSOCIATION Psychoanalytic therapy technique intended to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. The patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring. (P. 22) ID In psychoanalysis, the unconscious psychical entity present at birth representing basic drives. (P. 19) INCIDENCE Number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific time period (compare with prevalence). (P. 8) INTRAPSYCHIC CONFLICT In psychoanalysis, the struggles among the id, ego, and superego. (P. 19) INTROSPECTION Early, non-scientific approach to the study of psychology involving systematic attempts to report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli evoked. (P. 24) MENTAL HYGIENE MOVEMENT Mid-nineteenth century effort to improve care of the mentally disordered by informing the public of their mistreatment. (P. 16) MORAL THERAPY Nineteenth-century psychosocial approach to treatment that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments. (P. 15) NEUROSES Obsolete psychodynamic term for psychological disorders thought to result from unconscious conflicts and the anxiety they cause. Singular is neurosis. (P. 21) OBJECT RELATIONS Modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of how children incorporate the memories and values of people who are close and important to them. (P. 21) PERSON-CENTRED THERAPY Therapy method in which the client, rather than the counsellor, primarily directs the course of discussion, seeking self-discovery and self-responsibility. (P. 23) PHOBIA Psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation. (P. 3) PRESENTING PROBLEM Original complaint reported by the client to the therapist. The actual treated problem may sometimes be a modification derived from the presenting problem. (P. 8) PREVALENCE Number of people displaying a disorder in the total population at any given time (compare with incidence). (P. 8) PROGNOSIS Predicted future development of a disorder over time. (P. 8) PSYCHOANALYSIS Psychoanalytic assessment and therapy, which emphasizes exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts, pioneered by Sigmund Freud. (P. 17) PSYCHOANALYST Therapist who practises psychoanalysis after earning either an M.D. or Ph.D. degree and then receiving additional specialized postdoctoral training. (P. 17) PSYCHOANALYTIC MODEL Complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Sigmund Freud that seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behaviour, based primarily on inferred inner entities and forces. (P. 19) PSYCHODYNAMIC PSYCHOTHERAPY Contemporary version of psychoanalysis that still emphasizes unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems. (P. 22) PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER Psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response. (P. 3) PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Scientific study of psychological disorders. (P. 6) PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT In psychoanalysis, the sequence of phases a person passes through during development. Each stage is named for the location on the body where id gratification is maximal at that time. (P. 20) PSYCHOSOCIAL Social and cultural factors (such as family experience) and psychological influences. (P. 15) REINFORCEMENT In operant conditioning, consequences for behaviour that strengthen it or increase its frequency. Positive reinforcement involves the contingent delivery of a desired consequence; negative reinforcement is the contingent escape from an aversive consequence. Unwanted behaviours may result from their reinforcement, or the failure to reinforce desired behaviours. (P. 26) SCIENTIST-PRACTITIONER MODEL Expectation that mental health professionals will apply scientific methods to their work. They must keep current in the latest research on diagnosis and treatment, they must evaluate their own methods for effectiveness, and they may generate their own research to discover new knowledge of disorders and their treatment. (P. 7) SELF-ACTUALIZING Process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences. (P. 23) SHAPING In operant conditioning, the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that response. Both desirable and undesirable behaviours may be learned in this manner. (P. 26) SUPEREGO In psychoanalysis, the psychical entity representing the internalized moral standards of parents and society. (P. 19) SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION Behavioural therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation. (P. 25) TRANSFERENCE Psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they do to important authority figures, particularly their parents. (P. 22) UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD Acceptance by the counsellor of the client’s feelings and actions without judgment or condemnation. (P. 23) UNCONSCIOUS Part of the psychic makeup that is outside the person’s awareness. (P. 18) CHAPTER TWO- An Integrative Approach to Psychology AFFECT Conscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time. (P. 61) AGONIST Chemical substance that effectively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its effects. (P. 48) ANTAGONIST In neuroscience, a chemical substance that decreases or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter. (P. 48) BRAIN CIRCUITS Neurotransmitter currents or neural pathways in the brain. (P. 48) COGNITIVE SCIENCE Field of study that examines how humans and other animals acquire, process, store, and retrieve information. (P. 55) DIATHESIS–STRESS MODEL Hypothesis that both an inherited tendency (a vulnerability) and specific stressful conditions are required to produce a disorder. (P. 38) DOPAMINE Neurotransmitter whose generalized function is to activate other neurotransmitters and to aid in exploratory and pleasure-seeking behaviours (thus balancing serotonin). A relative excess of dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia (though contradictory evidence suggests the connection is not simple) and its deficit is involved in Parkinson’s disease. (P. 51) EMOTION Pattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompanied by a characteristic physiological response. (P. 61) EPIGENETICS The study of factors other than inherited DNA sequence, such as new learning or stress, that alter the phenotypic expression of genes. (P. 41) EQUIFINALITY Developmental psychopathology principle that a behaviour or disorder may have several different causes. (P. 67) FLIGHT-OR-FIGHT RESPONE Biological reaction to alarming stressors that musters the body’s resources (e.g., blood flow, respiration) to resist or flee the threat. (P. 60) GAMMA AMINOBUTYRIC ACID (GABA) Neurotransmitter that reduces activity across the synapse and thus inhibits a range of behaviours and emotions, especially generalized anxiety. (P. 49) GAMMA AMINOBUTYRIC ACID (GABA) SYSTEM Inhibitory neurotransmitter system that is thought to be associated with excessive anxiety. (P. 49) GENES Long deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules, the basic physical units of heredity, that appear as locations on chromosomes. (P. 35) GLUTAMATE Amino acid neurotransmitter that excites many different neurons, leading to action. (P. 49) HORMONE Chemical messenger produced by the endocrine glands. (P. 46) IMPLICIT COGNITION Unconscious cognitive processes that are difficult to measure because people cannot verbalize them, as they are not even aware of them. (P. 58) IMPLICIT MEMORY Condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events even though he or she acts in response to them. (P. 58) INVERSE AGONIST Chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular neurotransmitter. (P. 48) LEARNED HELPLESSNESS A condition in which a person begins to believe that he or she has no control over his or her life. (P. 56) MODELLING (ALSO KNOWN AS OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING) Learning through observation and imitation of the behaviour of other individuals and the consequences of that behaviour. (P. 57) MOOD Enduring period of emotionality. (P. 61) MULTIDIMENSIONAL INTEGRATIVE APPROACH Approach to the study of psychopathology that holds that psychological disorders are always the products of multiple interacting causal factors. (P. 33) NEURONS Individual nerve cells that are responsible for transmitting information. (P. 43) NEUROSCIENCE Study of the nervous system and its role in behaviour, thoughts, and emotions. (P. 42) NEUROTRANSMITTERS Chemicals that cross the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. Their relative excess or deficiency is involved in several psychological disorders. (P. 44) NORADRENALINE (see norepinephrine) (P. 50) NOREPINEPHRINE (ALSO NORADRENALINE) Neurotransmitter that is active in the central and peripheral nervous systems controlling heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, among other functions. Because of its role in the body’s alarm reaction, it may also contribute in general and indirectly to panic attacks and other disorders. (P. 50) OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Type of learning that does not require direct experience; rather, an organism can learn by observing what happens to another organism and later imitating the other organism’s behaviour (also known as modelling). (P. 57) PREPARED LEARNING Certain associations can be learned more readily than others because this ability has been adaptive for evolution. (P. 57) RECIPROCAL GENE–ENVIRONMENT MODEL Hypothesis that people with a genetic predisposition for a disorder may also have a genetic tendency to create environmental risk factors that promote the disorder. (P. 39) REUPTAKE Action by which a neurotransmitter is quickly drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released into a synaptic cleft. (P. 48) SEROTONIN A neurotransmitter involved in processing information and coordination of movement as well as inhibition and restraint; it also assists in the regulation of eating, sexual, and aggressive behaviours, all of which may be involved in different psychological disorders. Its interaction with dopamine is implicated in schizophrenia. (P. 49) SYNAPTIC CLEFT Space between nerve cells where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next. (P. 43) VULNERABILITY Susceptibility or tendency to develop a disorder. (P. 38) CHAPTER THREE- Clinical Assessments and Diagnosis BEHAVIOURAL ASSESSMENT Measuring, observing, and systematically evaluating (rather than inferring) the client’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviour in the actual problem situation or context. (P. 79) CLASSICAL CATEGORICAL APPROACH Classification method founded on the assumption of clear-cut differences among disorders, each with a different known cause. (P. 90) CLASSIFICATION Assignment of objects or people to categories on the basis of shared characteristics. (P. 89) CLINICAL ASSESSMENT Systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder. (P. 73) COMORBIDITY The presence of two or more disorders in an individual at the same time. (P. 96) DIAGNOSIS Process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder. (P. 73) DIMENSIONAL APPROACH Method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather than on a binary, either-or, or all-or-none basis. (P. 90) ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG) Measure of electrical activity patterns in the brain taken through electrodes placed on the scalp. (P. 88) FALSE NEGATIVE Assessment error in which no pathology is noted (i.e., test results are negative) when it is actually present. (P. 86) FALSE POSITIVE Assessment error in which pathology is reported (i.e., test results are positive) when none is actually present. (P. 86) INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ) Score on an intelligence test, abbreviated IQ, estimating a person’s deviation from average test performance. (P. 85) LABELLING Applying a name to a phenomenon or a pattern of behaviour. The label may acquire negativ
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