Textbook Notes (369,126)
Canada (162,403)
Psychology (1,025)
PSYCH 261 (107)
Chapter 4

PSYCH 261 CHAPTER 4 AND 18

6 Pages
103 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 261
Professor
Deltcho Valtchanov

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Description
Psycopharmacology and Drug Abuse Chapters 4 and 18 Captain Cook and the Puffer Fish “About three o’clock in the morning we found ourselves seized with an extraordinary weakness and numbness all over our limbs. I had almost lost the sense of feeling; nor could I distinguish between light and heavy bodies of such as I had strength to move, a quart pot full of water and a feather being the same in my hand….” Pharmacokinetics *The process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body, metabolized, and excreted. *Routes of Administration *Intravenous (IV) Injection – injection of substances directly into a vein; quickest acting method *Intraperitoneal (IP) Injection – injection into peritoneal cavity (space surrounding stomach, intestines, liver, etc.); not used in humans that much; used when humans doesn’t have the veins available *Intramuscular (IM) Injection – injection into muscle; injects athropin (stimulates muscle contraction) *Subcutaneous (SC) Injection – injection beneath the skin; injects botox – causes the face to be kinda paralyzed which removes wrinkles *Oral – administration by mouth (i.e., swallowing). *Sublingual – administration by placing beneath the tongue (e.g., LSD). *Inhalation – administration of a vaporous substance into the lungs; common foe smoking or marijuana *Topical – administration directly onto the skin (e.g. nicotine patch). *Intracerebral/cerebroventricular – administration directly into brain or ventricles. Pharmacokinetics - important *Drug effectiveness *Dose-Response Curve –magnitude of a drug effect as a function of the amount administered. *Many drugs have more than one effect; e.g., morphine, codeine. *Analgesic effect (desired reduction of pain) – e.g. morphine, at low doses, it reduces pain but as soon as you increase the dose, it starts depressive effect *Depressive effect (undesired reduction of heart rate, reduces breathing rate and metabolism; used to reduce comas). Tolerance and Sensitization *Tolerance – decreased effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly; the body Is adapting to the drug (e.g. cigar addiction) * Sensitization – increased effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly; you’re becoming tolerant and sensitized at the same time *Withdrawal Symptoms – symptoms opposite to those produced by a drug when the drug is administered repeatedly and then suddenly no longer taken; opposite effect that the drug have (e.g. when you inject cocaine, it makes you very happy but when you stop taking cocaine, you feel the opposite)- because you felt tolerance then your body went to a down stage once you stoped *E.g., cocaine produces euphoria when repeatedly taken and dysphoria upon withdrawal Placebo *An inert substance given to an organism in lieu of a physiologically active drug; *Commonly used experimentally to control for the effects of mere administration of a drug. *May be disease specific *May have greater effects for pain and anxiety disorders *Can last for up to two and half years (rheumatoid arthritis) *Nocebo effects – negative effects of an inert substance (e.g. alcohol study) *Side effects – a placebo given after an opiate can lead to the same respiratory depression seen after actually taking an opiate *Withdrawal – women on placebo in a hormone replacement therapy trial – 40% showed moderate to severe withdrawal symptoms Sites of Drug Action *Antagonist – the drug opposes/inhibits the effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell. E.g. Tynol *Agonist – the drug facilitates the effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell. E.g. ??? *Agonistic or antagonistic effects may influence production of neurotransmitters. *Agonistic or antagonistic effects may influence storage and release of neurotransmitters. Sites of Drug Action – SHORT ANS Q. – identify some of these sites where we can have an agonist or antagonist e.g.: AlDOPA to Dopamine Mechanisms of Drug Action *Direct Agonist – drug binds with and activates a receptor. *Mimics the agonist neurotransmitter *Direct Antagonist – drug binds with receptor but does not activate it; prevents binding of natural neurotransmitter. *Receptor blockers, antagonists Mechanisms of Drug Action *Noncompetitive Binding – binding of drug to receptor site that does not interfere with the natural binding of NT. *Indirect Agonist/Antagonist – drugs that attach to a binding site and facilitates/interferes with receptor action without interfering with the natural binding of NT. *Drugs may exert their agonistic or antagonistic effects by influencing the reuptake or destruction of neurotransmitters *SSRIs – selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors *Common treatment for depression Neurotransmitters *Acetylcholine *Primary neurotransmitter secreted by efferent axons of the PNS; most important *Major concentrations of ACh in the CNS include: *Dorsolateral Pons (role in REM sleep) *Basal Forebrain (role in learning) *Medial Septum (role in memory) Botox and other Ach drugs *Botulinum Toxin or botox –ACh antagonist; prevents release by terminal buttons – the skin will be paralyzed and release wrinkles; comes from bacteria of tomato sauce *Black Widow Spider toxin – triggers the release of acetylcholine; has the opposite effect of Botox; causes the muscles to contract because It causes neurons to release excessive amount of acytylcholine which will still make you paralyzed but flexible Neurotransmitters *Acetylcholine *Very important f
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit