Textbook Notes (369,126)
Canada (162,403)
Psychology (1,025)
PSYCH 261 (107)
Chapter 4


6 Pages

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Deltcho Valtchanov

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Psycopharmacology and Drug Abuse Chapters 4 and 18 Captain Cook and the Puffer Fish “About three o’clock in the morning we found ourselves seized with an extraordinary weakness and numbness all over our limbs. I had almost lost the sense of feeling; nor could I distinguish between light and heavy bodies of such as I had strength to move, a quart pot full of water and a feather being the same in my hand….” Pharmacokinetics *The process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body, metabolized, and excreted. *Routes of Administration *Intravenous (IV) Injection – injection of substances directly into a vein; quickest acting method *Intraperitoneal (IP) Injection – injection into peritoneal cavity (space surrounding stomach, intestines, liver, etc.); not used in humans that much; used when humans doesn’t have the veins available *Intramuscular (IM) Injection – injection into muscle; injects athropin (stimulates muscle contraction) *Subcutaneous (SC) Injection – injection beneath the skin; injects botox – causes the face to be kinda paralyzed which removes wrinkles *Oral – administration by mouth (i.e., swallowing). *Sublingual – administration by placing beneath the tongue (e.g., LSD). *Inhalation – administration of a vaporous substance into the lungs; common foe smoking or marijuana *Topical – administration directly onto the skin (e.g. nicotine patch). *Intracerebral/cerebroventricular – administration directly into brain or ventricles. Pharmacokinetics - important *Drug effectiveness *Dose-Response Curve –magnitude of a drug effect as a function of the amount administered. *Many drugs have more than one effect; e.g., morphine, codeine. *Analgesic effect (desired reduction of pain) – e.g. morphine, at low doses, it reduces pain but as soon as you increase the dose, it starts depressive effect *Depressive effect (undesired reduction of heart rate, reduces breathing rate and metabolism; used to reduce comas). Tolerance and Sensitization *Tolerance – decreased effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly; the body Is adapting to the drug (e.g. cigar addiction) * Sensitization – increased effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly; you’re becoming tolerant and sensitized at the same time *Withdrawal Symptoms – symptoms opposite to those produced by a drug when the drug is administered repeatedly and then suddenly no longer taken; opposite effect that the drug have (e.g. when you inject cocaine, it makes you very happy but when you stop taking cocaine, you feel the opposite)- because you felt tolerance then your body went to a down stage once you stoped *E.g., cocaine produces euphoria when repeatedly taken and dysphoria upon withdrawal Placebo *An inert substance given to an organism in lieu of a physiologically active drug; *Commonly used experimentally to control for the effects of mere administration of a drug. *May be disease specific *May have greater effects for pain and anxiety disorders *Can last for up to two and half years (rheumatoid arthritis) *Nocebo effects – negative effects of an inert substance (e.g. alcohol study) *Side effects – a placebo given after an opiate can lead to the same respiratory depression seen after actually taking an opiate *Withdrawal – women on placebo in a hormone replacement therapy trial – 40% showed moderate to severe withdrawal symptoms Sites of Drug Action *Antagonist – the drug opposes/inhibits the effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell. E.g. Tynol *Agonist – the drug facilitates the effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell. E.g. ??? *Agonistic or antagonistic effects may influence production of neurotransmitters. *Agonistic or antagonistic effects may influence storage and release of neurotransmitters. Sites of Drug Action – SHORT ANS Q. – identify some of these sites where we can have an agonist or antagonist e.g.: AlDOPA to Dopamine Mechanisms of Drug Action *Direct Agonist – drug binds with and activates a receptor. *Mimics the agonist neurotransmitter *Direct Antagonist – drug binds with receptor but does not activate it; prevents binding of natural neurotransmitter. *Receptor blockers, antagonists Mechanisms of Drug Action *Noncompetitive Binding – binding of drug to receptor site that does not interfere with the natural binding of NT. *Indirect Agonist/Antagonist – drugs that attach to a binding site and facilitates/interferes with receptor action without interfering with the natural binding of NT. *Drugs may exert their agonistic or antagonistic effects by influencing the reuptake or destruction of neurotransmitters *SSRIs – selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors *Common treatment for depression Neurotransmitters *Acetylcholine *Primary neurotransmitter secreted by efferent axons of the PNS; most important *Major concentrations of ACh in the CNS include: *Dorsolateral Pons (role in REM sleep) *Basal Forebrain (role in learning) *Medial Septum (role in memory) Botox and other Ach drugs *Botulinum Toxin or botox –ACh antagonist; prevents release by terminal buttons – the skin will be paralyzed and release wrinkles; comes from bacteria of tomato sauce *Black Widow Spider toxin – triggers the release of acetylcholine; has the opposite effect of Botox; causes the muscles to contract because It causes neurons to release excessive amount of acytylcholine which will still make you paralyzed but flexible Neurotransmitters *Acetylcholine *Very important f
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