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Chapter 2

Psych 261 Chapter 2 Psych 261 Physiological Psychology Kalat: Biological Psychology 10th Edition Chapter 2

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James Danckert

Psych 261 Chapter 2 Structure and Function of Cells of the Nervous System behaviour function of nervous system Body has cells specialized for detecting environmental events sensory neurons gather info From enveg light sound waves odors taste touch motor neurons control movement contraction of muscles interneurons between Sensory and motor entirely within CNSlocal interneurons form circuits with other neurons analyze small pieces of inforelay interneurons connect circuits of local interneurons between brain regions nervous system 2 parts CNS skullspine and PNS nervesmost sense organs Cells of the Nervous System Neurons Basic Structure neuron nerve cell infprocessinfotransmitting element of NS 4 regions i cell body soma ii dendrites iii axon iv terminal buttons soma contains nucleus and machinery for life processes of cell dendrites trees receive message take info from synapse and connecting terminal button axon tube partly covered with myelin sheath carrier action potentional from axon end to TB multipolar neuron 1 axon and many dendrites bipolar neuron 1 axon and 1 dendrite usu sensory unipolar neuron 1 stalk transmit sense info From envCNS usu for touch temp changes joints CNS communicates with body via nerves attached to brain and spinal cord Terminal button secrete NTs when AP reaches it connect via synapse with dendritessoma Internal Structure membrane double layer of lipid molecules cell boundary contains protein moleculesprotein detects outside substances eg hormones control access to interior of cell nucleus round enclosed by nuclear membrane contains nucleolus and chromosomesnucleolus creates ribosomeschromosomes holds DNAaka genesif chromosomes activeproduction of mRNAleaves nuclear membrane and attaches to ribosomesprotein production enzyme proteins direct chemical processes of cells via catalysts of chemical reactions producedestroy genome sequence of nucleotide bases on chromosomes with info Needed to synthesize all proteins that can be made by an organismlots of Junk DNA dont encode for protein conserved sequences of junk DA found near genes for developmentnoncoding RNA rna not leading to proteinsspliceosomes cut in RNA major constituentnoncoding RNA cytoplasm jellysemiliquid substance fills space outlined by membrane holds organelles in place mitochondria take nutrients from cell to produce ATP energy for cellrough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes for protein productionsecrete out cellsmooth endoplasmic reticulum produce lipid molecules provide channels for segregation of molecules involved in various cell processes Golgi apparatus special SER wrappacking agent assemble complex molecules from simple individual ones exocytosis vesicle migrates to outer membrane of cell fuses w it and bursts spills out contentsmicrotubules bundles of 13 protein filaments arranged around a hollow core axoplasmic transport substances propelled via microtubules that run length of axonsoma terminal buttons anterograde AT done via kinesin moleculesterminal buttonssoma retrograde AT done via dyenin
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