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Chapter 4

Psych 261 Chapter 4 Psych 261 Physiological Psychology Kalat: Biological Psychology 10th Edition Chapter 4

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James Danckert

Research Methods Behavioural scientists explore human behaviour via scientific method tough complexity of human nature how to get in peoples minds link bw bio and psych dimensions must learn proper research methodology Important Concepts 2 aspects of abnormal behaviour nature of the problems reportedetiology causes AB Basic Components of a Research Study start w hypothesis make research design to test it including IV and DV measure validity Internal does IV cause DV to change and External relatable to general world Hypothesis educated guess must make it testable testability ability to support hypothesismust also specify an IV and DV confound any factor occurring in a study that makes the results uninterpretable to insure internal validity use control groupsand randomization also use analogue models create comparable aspects in control condition of laboratoryeg allowing both bulimic and nonbulemiccontrol groups binge eat generalizability extent to which results are applicable to everyone I and E validity usu inversely related if control too much hard to generalize Statistical versus Clinical Significance statiscal significance results have a greater size of effect than just chanceeg people w meds have lessof headaches per day than non medicated clinical significance degree to which results have useful and meaningful applications to real problems egpeople w meds are still having a large number of headaches but less than unmedicated The average client patient uniformity myth problematic belief by researchers that everyones the same Studying individual cases case study method problems no scientific method little I validity many confounding variables Research by Correlation correlation statistical relationship bw two variables problem not imply causation directionality issue positive correlation variables go together negative correlation aka inverse correlation 1 up1 downpositive repd as 0 to 100 negative repd as 0 to 100 Epidemiological Research Epidemiology study of the incidence distribution and consequences of a set of problems must determine incidenceof new cases during a period and prevalenceof cases at any time goal find extent of medical problems relationship bw geographical proximity and impact of traumaResearch by Experiment experiment manipulation of an IV and its observed effects to find causality but wary of I validity Group Experimental Designs observe groups to see how diff variables are assocd use control groups to ensure validity ideal control groups should be very similar to experimental groupalso must check for placeboallegiance effects eg placebo control groups or doubleblind control Comparative Treatment Research diff treatment to 2 or more comparable groups via randomization assess how each treatment helped focus on process howwhy it works and outcome positivenegative results of treatment Singlecase Experimental Designs Skinner formalized concept of SCED systematic study of indiv Under variety of exp Conditions use various strategies to reduce confounds increase I validity
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