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PSYCH 261 - Week 2 Textbook Notes (Modules 2.1 - 3.1)

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Daniel Smilek

PSYCH 261 Physiological PsychologyModule 21 The Cells of the Nervous SystemThere are two kinds of cells in the nervous systemNeurons Receive information and transmit it to other cellsGlial cellsIn the late 1880s Santiago Ramon y Cajal used staining to discover that the brain is composed of individual cellsThe tips of neuron fibers are separated by a small gap called a synapseThe bodys cells are composed ofPlasma Membrane a surface that separates the inside of the cell from the outer environment o Composed of a phospholipid bilayer o Semipermeable o Protein channels permit controlled flow of water oxygen potassium calcium chloride and other important chemicalsNucleus contains genetic information chromosomes o Found in all animal cells except for mammalian red blood cellsMitochondria produce energy by performing metabolic activitiesRibosomes sites of protein synthesisEndoplasmic Reticulum transports newly synthesized proteinsThe Structure of a NeuronContains the same internal structures as other animal cellsShapes vary depending on functions and connections with other cellsDendrites branching fibers lined with synaptic receptors that allow them to receive information from other neurons o Larger surface areamore information it can receive o Dendritic spines short outgrowths that increase surface area available for synapsesAxon transmits information in the form of impulses o Myelin sheaths speed conduction o Nodes of Ranvier are breaks in the myelin sheaths o Afferent axon brings information into the neuron o Efferent axon carries information away from the neuronSoma cell body containing nucleus ribosomes mitochondria o Covered with synapsesPresynaptic terminal the point from which axons release chemicals that travel across a synapse to the next neuronMotor Efferent Neuron receives excitation from other neurons through its dendrites and conducts impulses along its axon to a muscleSoma is in the spinal cordSensory Afferent Neuron specialized at one end to be sensitive to a particular type of stimulationBranches lead from receptors into axonSoma is located off of the main trunkIntrinsic Neuron dendrites and axons are contained entirely within a single structureAlso called an interneuron
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