Textbook Notes (362,882)
Canada (158,081)
Psychology (998)
PSYCH 261 (96)

PSYCH 261 - Week 3 Textbook Notes (Module 3.2-3.3)

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Waterloo
Daniel Smilek

PSYCH 261Physiological PsychologyModule 32 Chemical Events at the SynapseCharles Sherrington identified many properties of the synapseKnew that synaptic transmission was slower than transmission along an axonThought that it was due to electrical activity when in reality many synapses rely on chemical processesTR Elliott 1905 discovered that applying adrenaline directly to the heart stomach and pupils produces the same effects as the sympathetic nervous systemTherefore sympathetic nerves stimulate muscles by releasing adrenaline or a similar chemicalOtto Loewi discovered that nerves send messages by releasing chemicalsDecreased one frogs heart rate by stimulating vagus nerveCollected fluid from first heart transferred it to a second frogs heart which decreased heart rate as wellSequence of Chemical Events at a SynapseNeuron synthesizes neurotransmitters in axon terminals and neuropeptides in cell body soma 2 Action potentials travel down the axon opening calcium channels and causing Ca to enter the cellCalcium releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronsNeurotransmitter diffuses across the cleft attaches to receptors and opens ion channels o Depolarization or hyperpolarization occursNeurotransmitters separate from receptors o Either recycled by the presynaptic neuron or diffuse awaySome postsynaptic cells send reverse messages to control further release of neurotransmitters by presynaptic cellsTypes of NeurotransmittersNeurotransmitters chemicals released by a neuron at a synapse that affect another neuronAmino acids acids containing an amine NH group 2o Form building blocks of neurotransmitters obtained from proteins in dietMonoamines chemicals formed by changing certain amino acidsAcetylcholine similar to an amino acid but has NCH instead of NH 332 Neuropeptides chains of amino acidsPurines adenosine guanine and their derivativesGases o Nitric oxide NO diffuses across and is very reactiveunstable dilates blood vessels increasing blood flow to that brain areaStorage of NeurotransmittersMost neurotransmitters are synthesized in the presynaptic terminal where they are stored in vesiclesNeurons that release serotonin dopamine or norepinephrine contain monoamine oxidase MAO that breaks these down into inactive chemicalsRelease and Diffusion of NeurotransmittersCalcium entry into the presynaptic terminal causes neurotransmitter release through exocytosis
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 261

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.