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PSYCH 261 - Week 4 Textbook Notes (Modules 4.1-4.2)

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University of Waterloo
Daniel Smilek

PSYCH 261 Physiological PsychologyModule 41 Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System consists of the brain and the spinal cordTract a set of axons within the CNS also known as a projectionNucleus a cluster of neuron cell bodies within the CNSPeripheral Nervous System connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the bodySomatic Nervous System consists of axons conveying messages from sense organs to the CNS and from the CNS to the musclesAutonomic Nervous System controls heart intestines other organs o Some of the cell bodies are within the brain or spinal cord or along the sides of the spinal cordNerve a set of axons in the periphery either from the CNS to a muscle or gland or from a sensory organ to the CNSGanglion a cluster of neuron cell bodies usually outside the CNS sympathetic nervous systemOther important terms Lamina a row or layer of cell bodies separated from other cell bodies by a layer of axons and dendritesColumn a set of cells perpendicular to the surface of the cortex with similar propertiesGyrus a protuberance on the surface of the brainSulcus a fold or groove that separates one gyrus from another o Fissure a long deep sulcusSpinal Cord part of the CNS within the spinal columnCommunicates with all sense organs and muscles except those of headSegmented with a motor and sensory nerve on each sideBellMagandie Law entering dorsal roots axon bundles carry sensory information and exiting ones carry motor information o Sends sensory information to brain receives motor commands from brain o Cell bodies of sensory neurons are in clusters outside of the spinal cord known as dorsal root gangliaHshaped gray matter in the center contains cell bodies and dendrites o White matter mostly consists of myelinated axons o Axons are sent from spinal cord neurons from the gray matter to other parts of the spinal cord through the white matterIf cut at a particular segment brain loses sensation and motor control fro that segment and belowThe autonomic nervous system can be split into two parts the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systemsSympathetic Nervous System a network of nerves that prepares organs for vigorous activity fight or flight responseConsists of chains of ganglia in spinal cords thoracic and lumbar regionsConnected by axons to spinal cordIncreases breathing and heart rate decreases digestive activitySweat glands adrenal glands vasoconstriction of blood vessels muscles that erect hair of skin innervated by this systemPostganglionic axons release norepinephrine o Some may also release acetylcholine such as those that control sweat glands
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