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PSYCH 261 - Week 7 Textbook Notes (Modules 6.3, 7.1, 7.2)

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University of Waterloo
Daniel Smilek

PSYCH 261Physiological PsychologyModule 63 Parallel Processing in the Visual CortexParts of the brains visual system receive information on a needtoknow basisOne part of the brain detects colour another senses location another perceives movementAt least 80 brain areas contribute to vision in different ways o As a result it is possible to retain certain aspects of vision after localized brain damageThe What and Where PathsPrimary visual cortex V1 sends information to secondary visual cortex V2 for processing and transmission o Reciprocal connections V1 sends information to V2 and V2 returns information to V1Ventral stream what pathway through temporal cortex o Specialized for identifying and recognizing objects o If damaged can recognize objects through other features ex touch odour etc but can still see where the objects areDorsal stream where pathway through parietal cortex o Helps motor system locate objects o If damaged know what things are just dont know where they areInferior temporal cortex cells respond to unidentifiable objects o Cells that respond to particular stimuli respond equally to negative or mirror images but not to a physically similar stimulus o Cells respond according to what the viewer perceives not what the stimulus physically is o Respond the same way regardless of changes in size position angleVisual agnosia inability to recognize objects o Usually results from damage in temporal cortexBrain does not have specialized areas that respond to specific types of objects o Parahippocampal cortex responds strongly to pictures of places o Fusiform gyrus in right hemisphere responds strongly to facesAbility to recognize faces is more precise for faces similar to familiar faces o Brain learns average of faces it sees and detects small deviations from that o Infants concept of face requires eyes to be on top but face does not have to be realistic o Depends on variety of brain areas including occipital cortex anterior temporal cortex prefrontal cortex fusiform gyrus o Prosopagnosia inability to recognize facesColour PerceptionArea V4 is important in responding to changes in colour o Correspond to apparent or perceived colour which depends on tonal context o Damage leads to loss of colour constancyMotion PerceptionMiddle temporal cortex MTV5 and medial superior temporal cortex MST are activated by motion o Receive input from magnocellular path which detects overall patterns o Colour insensitiveCells in MT detect acceleration deceleration overall speed and respond to motion in three dimensions o Also responds to photographs that imply movement
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