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PSYCH 261 - Week 12 Textbook Notes (Modules 15.1-15.2)

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Daniel Smilek

PSYCH 261Physiological PsychologyModule 151 Mood DisordersMajor Depressive DisorderPeople with major depression feel sad and helpless every day for weeks at a time o Have little energy feel worthless contemplate suicide have trouble sleeping cant concentrate feel little pleasure can hardly imagine being happy againAbsence of happiness is more reliable symptom than increased sadnessPeople with depression show decreased response to happy facial expressions and decreased response to likely rewardChildhood depression is equally common in males and females o Beyond age 14 depression is more common in femalesCommon to have episodes of depression separated by periods of normal mood o First episode is longer than later ones o Brain learns how to be depressed and gets better at itNo gene shows a strong link to depression o People with earlyonset depression have a high probability of other relatives with depression anxiety disorders ADD alcohol or marijuana abuse OCD bulimia migraines irritable bowel syndrome o People with lateonset depression have high probability of relatives with circulatory problemsEffect of a gene may vary with the environment o One gene controls serotonin transporter o People with short form of gene have higher probability of depression with stressful eventsDoesnt lead to depression itself but may magnify reaction to stressful eventsA few cases of depression are related to viral infections ex Borna diseaseHormones may also be a trigger for depression o Stress increases cortisol release o Hormone fluctuations are a contributing factor to postpartum depression Drop in estradiol and progesterone o In older men decreased testosterone levels increase probability of depressionMost people with depression have increased activity in the right prefrontal cortex and decreased activity in the left prefrontal cortex o Balance is stable despite changes in symptoms of depressionAntidepressant DrugsTricyclics block transporter proteins that reabsorb serotonin dopamine norepinephrine into presynaptic neuron after their release o Prolong presence of neurotransmitters in synaptic cleft o Also block histamine receptors ACh receptors and sodium channelsInduces drowsiness dry mouth difficulty urinating heart irregularitiesSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SSRIs block serotonin reuptake o Ex Prozac Zoloft Luvox Celexa Paxil o Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors also existMonoamine oxidase inhibitors MAOIs block monoamine oxidase which is an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines and serotonin to inactive forms o Allows presynaptic terminal to have more transmitter available to be released o People taking this drug must avoid foods containing tyramine as the combination increases blood pressureAtypical antidressants include bupropion which inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake but not serotonin
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