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Chapter 2

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Ernie Mac Kinnon

[ CHAPTER TWO ] ASSESSMENT AND THE IEP PROCESS USES OF ASSESSMENT INFORMATION  used to identify student’s exceptionality and to plan instruction  to obtain info tht can be used to plan ways to help student learn  process serves several purposes: 1.) screening: eval’n used to detect pupils who may need more comprehensive exam’n 2.) referral: seeks additional assistance from other school personnel; on basis of obsv’n and classroom performance, teacher/others requests eval’n of student 3.) classification: dtrmns student eligibility for services; assessed to judge need for services and to classify category of disability 4.) instructional planning: dvlps edu’al program for indvdl student (instructional goals and specific plans for teaching) 5.) monitoring pupil progress: several approaches used, including standardized formal tests, informal measures, and cont’ous monitoring procedure DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES Final regulations for law indicate that states: 1. must not req’ sever discrepancy btwn intellectual ability and achievement 2. must permit use of process based on child’s response to sci, research-based interventions 3. may permit use of other alt research-based procedures to dtrmn whether child has LD 2 ways schools can dtrmn eligibility are: 1. RTI approach 2. Comprehensive eval’n of student w/ suspected disabilities, which for LD includes discrepancy btwn achievement and intellectual ability THE RESPONSE-TO-INTERVENTION (RTI) CONSTRUCT What is RTI ?  Procedure intended to identify students who are having academic difficulties when problems 1 become apparent by using evidence-based intervention (or sci research-based instruction) w/ students  If child dN respond/learn after several levels of intervention, child may then be considered for eval’n for sp’ edu and to dtrmn category Tiers of Instruction  Diff versions, but most common is 3 tiers (or levels)  Each tier provides i↑’ly indvdl’z’d and intensified instruction, along w/ cont’ous monitoring of progress to calculate gains  Students who dN respond adequately to tier moves up one tier Tier 1: high-quality instruction in GE and monitoring of student progress Tier 2: - more intensive evidence-based instruction while progress monitoring cont’s - often support teachers (i.e. reading specialists) instruct students Tier 3: - highly intense evidence-based interventions taught in small groups while progress monitoring cont’s - students who dN respond adequately may be considered for sp’ edu eval’n (called non-responders) Benefits of and Concerns About RTI Benefits:  Focuses on earlier identification and prevention of disability, thereby reducing # of students referred  Intended to reduce over-identification of minority students  Part of GE and responsibility of GE teachers  Focuses on student outcomes and i↑’d accountability (includes all suspected categorical disabilities)  Uses materials tht are evidenced-based/sci research-based and offers tiers of i↑’ly intensive instruction  Provides services to students w/o using categorical labels  Promotes shared responsibility and collaboration Concerns:  Unknown costs of fully implanting  Q’ns abt whether RTI ready for wide-scale adoption  Will concept of LD be lost w/ RTI ?  More rigorous research still needed  Neurobio’al correlates of LD should be considered  More info abt older students and other academic areas of learning besides reading needed  Not all children respond well to even most effect interventions  Are rights and protections for SWD provided w/ RTI? Problem Solving and the Standard Protocol Approaches to RTI  2 diff approaches used: 1.) problem solving—focus on indvdl’z’d intervention for one student; based on knowing why a student is truggling 2.) standard protocol—focus on sgl standard intervention for group of students THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN ACHIEVEMENT AND INTELLECTUAL ABILITY CONSTRUCT What is the Discrepancy Construct?  Assessment procedure based on concept tht student has intellectual potential for learning, but not meeting potential in academic performance  Student’s achievement (what student has actually learned) is compared to student’s intellectual ability (what student is potentially capable of learning)  If difference btwn achievement & intellectual ability is > 1 or 2 SD, student can be identified as having LD  Group of qualified professionals and student’s parents must dtrmn student’s eligibility  Eval’n team can establish student’s eligibility if student: 1.) dN achieve adequately/meet state-approved standards in oral expression/listening comprehension/written expression/basic reading skills/reading fluency/reading comprehension/mathematics calculations/mathematics problem solving...OR 2.) dN make sufficient progress toward meeting state-approved grade level standards in 1 of above areas using process based on student’s response to sci research-based intervention…OR 3.) exhibits pattern of s&w in performance/achievement/both, relative to state-approved, grade-level standards or intellectual dvlpmt  Discrepancy score = mathematical calculation for quantifying discrepancy btwn achievement and intellectual ability (or potential for learning) Concerns About the Discrepancy Construct  Quantitative and qualitative info should be combined  Using IQ score for measuring indvdl’s potential may not be useful: - score can be affected by student’s culture/native lang - lower score could be result of nature of disability itself  Children who are poor achievers often have ~ learning characteristics regardless of high/low IQ scores  Discrepancy formulas vary from state to state THE INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM (IEP)  Written statement for each child w/ disability  Req’mt tht each public school child who receives sp’ edu and related services must have IEP  Procedural safeguards provided in federal law, and are designed to protect rights of children and parents STAGES OF THE IEP Referral Stages Stage 1: Pre-referral Activities  Instructional support team (or teacher-assistance team) dvlp’s pre-referral activities for student encountering difficulties in GEC to be used by GEC teachers  If interventions successful, student dN need to be referred for eval’n  Instructional support team is peer group of colleagues to help classroom teacher analyze student’s academic &/or beh’al problems and recommends interventions and accommodations for classroom Stage 2: Referral and Initial Planning  After referral made (by parent/teacher/other professionals/teacher/student themselves) parents must be notified of school’s concern and must give written permission for eval’n  Decisions must be made abt general kinds of eval’n data needed and ppl who will be responsible for gathering this info Assessment Stages  Core of process Stage 3: Multidisciplinary Evaluation  Specialists rep’g various disciplines obtain pertinent info by assessing academic performance and beh’ in areas related to suspected disability i.e. school psychologist, school social worker, school nurse, etc.  IDEA-2004 outlines procedures for gathering info: - tests must be appropriate, validated for purpose used, and as free as possible from cultural/racial bias - eval’n materials must be administered in student’s native lang - eval’n team must rep’ several disciplines and must include at least one teacher/specialist in area of suspected disability Stage 4: The IEP Meeting—Writing the IEP  Parents then contacted for IEP meeting, where eligibility for sp’ edu dtrmn’d and IEP written Participants at IEP meeting must include (IDEA-2004): 1. Parents of CWD 2. Not less than one regular edu teacher of such child 3. Not less than one sp’ edu teacher (or sp’ edu provider where appropriate) 4. Rep’ of school/district who: a.) is qualified to provide/supervision provision of, specially designing instruction to meet unique needs of CWD b.) is knowledgeable abt GE curriculum c.) is knowledgeable abt availability of resources of school/district 5. Indvdl who can interpret instructional implications of eval’n results, who may be member of the team 6. At discretion of parent/agency, other indvdls who have knowledge/sp’ expertise regarding child, including related services personnel as appropriate 7. Whenever appropriate, CWD Contents of child’s IEP must include: 1. Statement of child’s present levels of academic achievement and f’nal performance a. how disability affects involvement and progress in GE curriculum b. for preschoolers, how disability affects participation in appropriate activities c. for CWD who take alt assessments aligned to alt achievement standards, a description of benchmarks/ST objectives 2. Statement of measurable annual goals, including academic and f’nal goals designed to: a. meet child’s needs tht result from child’s disability, in order to enable child to be involved in & make progress on GE curriculum b. meet each of child’s other edu needs tht result from child’s disability 3. Description of how child’s progress toward meeting annual goals will be measured and when periodic reports on progress will be provided 4. Statement of sp’ edu and related services and supplementary aids, based on peer-reviewed research to extent practicable, to be provided to child, and statement of program mods/supports for school personnel tht will be provided for child 5. Explanation of extent to which student will not participate w/ nondisabled children in regular class and in regular class activities 6. Statement of indvdl appropriate accommodations tht are necessary to measure academic achievement and f’nal performance of child on state and district-wide assessments 7. Projected date for beginning of services and mods, and their anticipated frequency, location, and duration 8. Appropriate transition assessments and services, beginning no later than first IEP to be in effect when child is 16, an dupdated annually Related services:  IEP also dtrmns need for related services  May include: transportation and dvlpmtal, corrective, and other supportive services i.e. speech-lang specialists, PT/OT, medical services Instruction Stages Stage 5: Implementing the IEP Teaching Plan  Student taught in agreed upon setting and receives instruction designed to help reach goals set forth in IEP Stage 6: Review and Re-evaluation of the Student’s Progress  IEP must include explanations tht show how this eval’n will be accomplished, who will conduct eval’n, and what assessment instruments and criteria will be used  IDEA req’s child’s parents be informed of progress as frequently as parents of non-disabled children are informed, such as via progress report tht accompanies report card EVALUATING STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES AND RELATED MILD DISABILITIES Dimensions to be considered in the process of eval’n:  Obsv’g student in classroom: - info abt beh’ and ways in which beh’ affects academic performance  Recognizing student’s strengths and clusters of characteristics: - cluster example: student w/ reading problem may also have underlying oral lang D  Considering concerns of parents and families: - IDEA-2004: emphasizes strengthening role of parents and family to participate in edu of child  Setting annual goals: - general estimates of what student will achieve in one year, such as learning to x &  in math  Dtrmn’g edu’al settings and services: - decisions must be made abt extent to which student will be placed in least restrictive env’ - IDEA-2004: general curriculum presented to be appropriate beginning point for planning IEP  Monitoring progress: - how will progress be monitored and measured? Who will be responsible for administering them? SPECIAL FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN THE IEP  Federal law req’s functional behavioural assessment and positive behavioural intervention and support for children w/ beh’al challenges English-Language Learners  Comprise fastest growing pop’n in USA  IDEA req’s tht if child has limited proficiency in English, IEP team must consider child’s lang needs as they relate to child’s IEP Assistive and Instructional Technology  Assistive technology = techno
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