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Chapter 4

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Ernie Mac Kinnon

[ CHAPTER FOUR ] EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS AND THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY IMPORTANT CONCEPTS ABOUT EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS  Dtrmn’g setting of instruction is key decision made by IEP team  w/ i↑’g frequency, recommended setting is GEC (inclusion is term often used to refer to GEC)  IDEA-2004 calls for instructing SWD in least restrictive env’—w/ peers who do not have disabilities—to greatest extent appropriate  Varying viewpoints: 1.) SWD should receive instruction in GEC: - opposing beliefs—beneficial vs. harmful 2.) SWD need intensive teaching in small instructional groups 3.) general and sp’ educators should work together to provide indvdl’zd instruction: - setting itself less important than what goes on in setting  Steady i↑ of placement of SWD in GEC  IDEA-2004 provisions on placement for services: 1.) continuum of alt placements 2.) least restrictive env’ Continuum of Alternative Placements  Specifies schools should make available an array of edu’al settings to meet varied needs of SWD  Placement options include: 1.) GEC 2.) resource rooms 3.) separate classes 4.) separate schools; and other types of placements as need, such as 5.) residential facility 6.) homebound/hospital setting  Restrictive = placement of SWD w/ non-disabled students - placement of SWD w/ non-disabled students in GEC (TF) considered least restrictive option Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)  Aims to ensure tht, to extent appropriate, SWD have exp’s in school w/ students who dN have disabilities  Means when IEP team makes decisions abt ed’al settings, must attempt ot choose LRE for each student Integrating General Education and Special Education  Early days: sp’ classes/schools established for each category of disability Mainstreaming  Early procedure in which SWLD placed selectively in GEC for instruction, particularly if teachers believed children would benefit from integrated placement  Goal: i↑ slowly amnt of time students would spend in GEC while d↓’g amnt of time in sp’ edu classes Inclusion  Instruction of SWD in GEC  Underlying aim: restructure schools to eliminate sp’ edu (viewed as unnecessasys”)  Starting point in GEC w/ student receiving sp’ edu services within/outside classroom  Philosophical ideologies: normalization of children t/ integrated regular classes and elimination of labels for CWD  Belief tht large part of child’s problem would disappear by doing away w/ labels  Concern tht one size dN fit all, and lumping all SWLD into GEC ignores notion of indvdl’zd instruction Guidelines for Effective Inclusion  Req’s tht teachers: 1.) consider student and family 2.) be committed to goals of inclusion 3.) have adequate resources and supports 4.) engage in ongoing professional dvlpmt TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS  In selecting edu’al setting, IEP team should consider: 1.) severity of disability 2.) student’s need for related services 3.) student’s ability to fit into routine of setting 4.) student’s soc & academic skills 5.) student’s level of schooling  Parents must agree to edu’al setting in writing - if disagree, may ask for mediation at no cost (“resolution session” / due process hearing) GENERAL EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION CLASS RESOURCE ROOM SPECIAL CLASS % of time sp’ edu students spend < 21% 21-60% > 60% outside GEC % of students w/ LD in diff edu’al 46% 38% 15% env’s  Practical strategies: - use team approach - provide supportive services - plan for soc acceptance - teach students appropriate classroom beh’ - use co-teaching strategies Placement Options  Most SWLD and related mild disabilities receive services t/ GEC, resource rooms, or sp’ classrooms  Sometimes combo placement is viable alt for particular student General Education Classroom  Mere phys placement not enough to ensure academic achievement or soc acceptance - req’s careful planning, teacher preparation, team effort, and complete support sys  Ideally, general and sp’ educators share responsibility for teaching Resource Room  Edu’al setting tht provides edu’al services to SWD on regularly scheduled basis for part of day  Offers flexibility in terms of curriculum offered, time students spend in program, # of students served, and teacher’s time  Care must be taken in scheduling students i.e. if pupil enjoys phys ed, teacher should avoid pre-empting this period for resource room session Separate Class  Typically small; abt 6-15 students  Some categorical and others cross-categorical  Beneficial for certain students who appear to have better self-concept than ~ students in GEC  Can offer more intensive indvdl’zd instruction in which students spend more time learning Separate School  Some students attend F/T, while others spend on half a day here and half a day in public school  disadv↓’s: high expense, traveling distance, lack of opportunity to be w/ students in GE pop’n Residential Facility  Provide F/T placement for students away from homes  Relatively few students have disabilities severe enough to warrant such placement  disadv↓’s: remove from home and provide fewer opportunities for soc exp’s in larger community Homebound or Hospital Setting  usually have medical condition req’g these placements  often school sends teachers to home/hospital settings to provide instruction One-to-One Instruction  Not edu’al env’ identified in IDEA-2004  Occurs when one adult works w/ one student  Teaching highly indvdl’zd, and student receives intensive instruction over period of time by skilled teacher who can tailor instruction to specific student needs  Computers offer way to indvdl’z teaching  Aides and volunteers offer another procedure; coordinates efforts w/ classroom teacher and who gears instruction based on indvdl’zd needs of student as delineated by IEP COLLABORATION: PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN GENERAL EDUCATION TEACHERS AND SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS Collaboration  Style of interaction tht provides way for indvdls/groups to work tog
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