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PSYCH 312 (33)
Chapter 5

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Ernie Mac Kinnon

[ CHAPTER FIVE ] THEORIES OF LEARNING: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING THE ROLE OF THEORY  Helps us understand complexities of learning - guide and act as basis for instruction  Helpful in sorting and eval’g new materials, technology, gadgets, methods, and media confronting educator DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY  Key notion: maturation of cog skills (or thinking) follows sequential progression - implies tht attempts to speed up or bypass dvlpmtal process may actually create problems Developmental Variations  … = differences in rates of specific components of dvlpmt  Each indvdl has preset rate of growth for various human f’ns, including cog abilities  Maturational lag – variations of abilities maturing at differing rates  Implies CWD different from other children in their dvlmptal differences more aar of timing  Perspective suggests tht society actually creates more learning problems i.e. school curriculum and its expectations  Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) – tasks in range of difficulty btwn what person can do (i)’ly and what they can do w/ assistance Piaget’s Maturational Stages of Development  Cog growth occurs in series of invariant and inter(d) stages  At each stage, child capable of learning only certain cog tasks  Yet, school curriculum frequently req’s students to dvlp abstract and logical conceptualizations in given area w/o providing sufficient opportunity for students to go t/ preliminary levels of understanding 1. Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to Age 2  Learn t/ senses and mvmvts and by interacting w/ phys env  Some CWD need more opportunities for motor exploration 2. Preoperational Stage: Ages 2-7  Make intuitive judgments abt rel’nshps, and also begin to think w/ symbols to rep’ concrete world  Thinking dominated largely by world of perception  Can only attach one attribute/f’n to an object 3. Concrete Operations Stage: Ages 7-11  Able to think t/ rel’nshps, perceive consequences of acts, and group entities logically  Thoughts shaped in large measure by previous exp’s, and linked to concrete objects they have manipulated/understood t/ senses 4. Formal Operations Stage: Age 11  Thought now directs obsv’ns  Have capacity to work w/ abstractions, theories, and logical reln’shps w/o having to refer to concrete  Provides generalized orientation toward problem-solving activity Stages of Learning 1. Exposure: exposed to knowledge but dN fully grasp it and needs extensive teacher support and direction i.e. Jack shown multiplication tables for 5s; just beginning to become familiar w/ table 2. Grasping the knowledge: begins to grasp knowledge and needs much practice 3. Independence: can do task (i)’ly even after direct instruction and reinforcements have been w/drawn 4. Application: owns knowledge, has internalized it, and can apply to other situations Implications of Developmental Psychology for Learning Disabilities and Related Mild Disabilities  Major cause of students’ school difficulties is immaturity  Birth-date effect – when each student’s MOB compared w/ %age of children referred for LD services, younger children much more likely to be referred  Readiness – state of maturational dvlpmt and prior exp’s needed before target skill can be learned i.e. learning multiplication req’s knowledge abt addition BEHAVIOURAL PSYCHOLOGY Behavioural theories of learning and instruction are based on following concepts: 1. Human beh’ shaped by beh’al principles, such as +ve reinforcement, and is f’n of consequences 2. Modifying beh’ req’s direct focus on beh’ of concern 3. Objective of teaching should be clearly specified 4. Target beh’ is obsv’able and measurable 5. Effectiveness of intervention req’s frequent measurement The Behavioural Unit  A: Antecedent event—stimulus  B: target Behaviour—response  C: Consequent event—reinforcement Functional Behavioural Assessment and Positive Behavioural Support  f/ of IDEA-2004 is req’mt tht IEP must include FBA and PBS  Functional behavioural assessment – eval’n of child’s beh’  Positive behavioural support – intervention to change tht beh’ Functional Behavioural Assessment  This is antecedent event tht triggers student’s obvs’able beh’, which is then described and analyzed to discover what needs this challenging beh’ is fulfilling for student i.e. Joshua makes jokes and loud noises whenever he is asked to read aloud; FBA reveals he acts this way to avoid reading aloud b/c his poor reading ability embarrasses him Positive Behavioural Support  Once teacher understands reason for antecedent beh’, looks for substitute activity for reading aloud i.e. teacher privately informs Joshua ahead of time passage he will be asked to read aloud Direct Instruction  Teaches academic skills directly  Is teacher-directed and ctrl’d  Uses carefully sequenced and structured materials  Provides student mastery of basic skills  Sets goals tht are clear to students  Allocates sufficient time for instruction  Uses cont’ous monitoring of student performance  Provides immediate feedback to students  Teaches skill until mastery of tht skill achieved  Explicit teaching – teachers clear abt specific skills to be taught and explicitly teach each step/skill rather than leave it up to student to make inferences from own exp’s in order to learn Behavioural Analysis  Req’s teachers analyze specific task tht students are to learn to dtrmn subskills needed to accomplish task 1. State objective to be achieved or task to be learned in terms of student performance 2. Analyze subskills needed to perform task 3. List subskills to be learned in sequential order 4. Dtrmn which subskills student dNk 5. Teach one subskill at a time; when one su
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