Textbook Notes (368,070)
Canada (161,617)
Psychology (1,025)
PSYCH 312 (33)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8.docx

7 Pages
85 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 312
Professor
Ernie Mac Kinnon
Semester
Summer

Description
[ CHAPTER EIGHT ] YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES THE IMPORTANCE OF THE EARLY YEARS  Parents and families need to actively promote learning during preschool yrs - otherwise, when child start school already behind peers, may never be able to catch up, keep up, or to take adv↑ of all efforts schools make to help them Benefits of Early Intervention  EC sp’ edu programs designed to: 1.) identify young children (birth–age 5) w/ sp’ needs and are likely to encounter difficulty in school 2.) provide early intervention programming  Beneficial for CWD, for families of CWD, and for society  Enhances intelligence  Promotes substantial gains in all dvlpmtal areas (phys, cog, lang, psychosocial, self-help)  Inhibits/prevents 2ndary disabilities  Reduces family stress  Reduces (d)’cy and institutionalization  Saves nation and society substantial health care costs and edu costs Considerations of Cultural Diversity for Young Children TABLE 8.1 Race/Ethnicity Percentage Percentage of American Indian/Alaskan Native 0.44 Preschool Children Asian/Pacific Islander 7.33 With Disabilities Black (non-Hispanic) 12.93 Receiving Services Hispanic 15.25 by Race/Ethnicity White (non-Hispanic) 64.06 Children At-Risk  Have factors tht lead to poor general dvlpmt and learning failure  May not be eligible under law for sp’ services, but are at high risk for becoming CWD unless early intervention services provided  Factors: poverty, disrupted families, abusive parents, prenatal substance exposure, exposure to alcohol/tobacco/nicotine, illegal drug use  Research: - shows when early intervention & work w/ families made available, CA-R dramatically improve - env’ affects # of brain cells, connections among brain cells, and way brain cells wired - brain dvlpmt before age 1 more rapid and extensive than previous realized - influence of early env’ on brain dvlpmt is long lasting - early stress has –ve impact on brain f’n STRATEGIES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN IN GENERAL EDUCATION  ECGE teachers and sp’ edu teachers should collaborate in planning curriculum for all preschoolers  Young children w/ and w/o sp’ needs should share common curriculum  Adaptations needed for young children w/ diverse learning styles and abilities  Both child-initiated activities and teacher-initiated activities should be used  Play exp’s should foster active engagement and interaction of all children  Activities should be appropriate for each child’s stage of dvlpmt  Activities should nourish soc rel’nshps for all children  Activities should promote comm’n among children  Cultural and linguistic diversity of all children should be considered THE LAW AND YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DISABILITES  IDEA-2004 req’s services be provided for 2 diff age groups: (1) preschoolers; and (2) infants and toddlers TABLE 8.2 Preschoolers Infants and Toddlers Comparison of Age Ages 3 – 5 Birth to age 3 Legislation for Eligibility Either category of disabilityDvlpmtal delay Preschoolers or dvlpmtal delay and for Infants Plan IFSP or IEP IFSP (indvdl family service and Toddlers plan) Law Part B of law, mandatory Part C of law, permissive Lead agency State edu agency Agency appointed by governor Transition To regular class or sp’ edu To program for preschool class sp’ edu or to regular preschool w/ sp’ edu support Primary orientation Child and dvlpmtal learning Family and family-infant interaction Personnel EC sp’ edu teacher Service coordinator Number of Preschool Children Receiving Special Education Services  i↑’g TABLE 8.3 Age Percentage Receiving Sp’ Edu Services Breakdown by Age 3 21 of Preschool-Age 4 38 Children 5 40  most frequently identified problems for children ages 3-5 from greatest to least are: 1.) speech/lang impairment 2.) dvlpmtal delay 3.) MR 4.) autism 5.) LD 6.) other health impairment 7.) other (includes emo’al disturbance, multiple disabilities, hearing/orthopaedic/visual impairment, deaf-blindness, traumatic brain injury) Educational Environments  Edu’al setting for young CWD  Generally EC classes – 36%  EC sp’ edu classes – 32%  Split general EC classes and EC sp’ edu’ classes – 15%  Residential facility – 0.09%  Separate school – 3%  Itinerant services outside home – 10%  Home instruction – 3%  Reverse mainstreaming 1% DEVELOPMENTAL INDICATORS OF PROBLEMS IN YOUNG CHILDREN  Early signs of problems in young children i.e. often, child will excel in some areas of dvlpmt, while displaying significant lags/difficulty in others  Early warning signs in preschool children: - late talking, compared w/ other children - pronunciation problems - slow vocab growth, often unable to find right word - difficulty rhyming words - trouble learning #s, alphabet, days of week - extremely restless and easily distracted - trouble interacting w/ peers - poor ability to follow directions  Dvlpmtal indictaors: - gross-motor skills—appear clumsy in walking, jumping, hopping, running, skipping, catching skills - fine-motor skills—slow in learning to dress themselves, eating skills, using buttons and zippers, using pencils and crayons, difficulty doing puzzles, using scissors in cutting activities, slow laborious handwriting - auditory processing—can hear, but have difficulty in processing what they hear - visual processing—problems in visual discrimination of letters and words, visual memory - communication and lang skills—difficulty listening, responding to instructions, initiating comm’ns, explaining, engaging in convos, and comm’g w/ others - problems w/ attention—beh’s of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING  Recurring theme t/o hist of sp’ edu is concern for motor dvlpmt  DSM-IV classifies severe problems in motor skills as developmental coordination disorder (DCD) 1.) delays in dvlpmtal milestones 2.) dropping things 3.) clumsiness 4.) poor performance in sports 5.) poor handwriting  IEP can designate use of related services, such as adapted phys edu or OTs The Importance of Motor Development  Cornerstone of child dvlpmt  Intervention strategies include methods for building motor skills, spatial awareness, and motor planning  Can help child become happier, more confident, more available for learning and also foster soc interactions  When motor curriculum req`s child to go t/, under, over, btwn, and around obstacles, also learning important cog and lang skills Perceptual Motor Development  t/ PMD, child integrates motor beh’s and perception (visual, auditory, tactile, and kinaesthetic perception)  Children who have normal perceptual motor dvlpmt establish solid and reliable concept of world, a stable perceptual motor world, by the time they encounter academic tasks at age 6  In contrast, children w/ difficulty w/ PMD must content w/ perceptual motor world tht is unstable and unreliable Sensory Integration  OTs trained in rel’nshp btwn brain physiology and f’n (TF) use SI therapy w/ children who have Ds in several sensory SI f’ns, which interfere w/ awareness of their body and body mvmts  3 systems involved in SI: (1) tactile system; (2) vestibular system; and (3) proprioceptive system Tactile System  Involves sense of touch and stimulation of skin surfaces  Tactile defensiveness = exp’ discomfort when touched by another person  Methods of SI used by OTs: touching and rubbing skin surfaces, using lotions, brushing skin surfaces Vestibular System  Involves inner ear and enables indvdls to detect motion  Allows children to know where their head is in space and how to handle gravity  Children w/ vestibular Ds fall
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 312

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit