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PSYCH 312 (33)
Chapter 8

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Ernie Mac Kinnon

[ CHAPTER EIGHT ] YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES THE IMPORTANCE OF THE EARLY YEARS  Parents and families need to actively promote learning during preschool yrs - otherwise, when child start school already behind peers, may never be able to catch up, keep up, or to take adv↑ of all efforts schools make to help them Benefits of Early Intervention  EC sp’ edu programs designed to: 1.) identify young children (birth–age 5) w/ sp’ needs and are likely to encounter difficulty in school 2.) provide early intervention programming  Beneficial for CWD, for families of CWD, and for society  Enhances intelligence  Promotes substantial gains in all dvlpmtal areas (phys, cog, lang, psychosocial, self-help)  Inhibits/prevents 2ndary disabilities  Reduces family stress  Reduces (d)’cy and institutionalization  Saves nation and society substantial health care costs and edu costs Considerations of Cultural Diversity for Young Children TABLE 8.1 Race/Ethnicity Percentage Percentage of American Indian/Alaskan Native 0.44 Preschool Children Asian/Pacific Islander 7.33 With Disabilities Black (non-Hispanic) 12.93 Receiving Services Hispanic 15.25 by Race/Ethnicity White (non-Hispanic) 64.06 Children At-Risk  Have factors tht lead to poor general dvlpmt and learning failure  May not be eligible under law for sp’ services, but are at high risk for becoming CWD unless early intervention services provided  Factors: poverty, disrupted families, abusive parents, prenatal substance exposure, exposure to alcohol/tobacco/nicotine, illegal drug use  Research: - shows when early intervention & work w/ families made available, CA-R dramatically improve - env’ affects # of brain cells, connections among brain cells, and way brain cells wired - brain dvlpmt before age 1 more rapid and extensive than previous realized - influence of early env’ on brain dvlpmt is long lasting - early stress has –ve impact on brain f’n STRATEGIES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN IN GENERAL EDUCATION  ECGE teachers and sp’ edu teachers should collaborate in planning curriculum for all preschoolers  Young children w/ and w/o sp’ needs should share common curriculum  Adaptations needed for young children w/ diverse learning styles and abilities  Both child-initiated activities and teacher-initiated activities should be used  Play exp’s should foster active engagement and interaction of all children  Activities should be appropriate for each child’s stage of dvlpmt  Activities should nourish soc rel’nshps for all children  Activities should promote comm’n among children  Cultural and linguistic diversity of all children should be considered THE LAW AND YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DISABILITES  IDEA-2004 req’s services be provided for 2 diff age groups: (1) preschoolers; and (2) infants and toddlers TABLE 8.2 Preschoolers Infants and Toddlers Comparison of Age Ages 3 – 5 Birth to age 3 Legislation for Eligibility Either category of disabilityDvlpmtal delay Preschoolers or dvlpmtal delay and for Infants Plan IFSP or IEP IFSP (indvdl family service and Toddlers plan) Law Part B of law, mandatory Part C of law, permissive Lead agency State edu agency Agency appointed by governor Transition To regular class or sp’ edu To program for preschool class sp’ edu or to regular preschool w/ sp’ edu support Primary orientation Child and dvlpmtal learning Family and family-infant interaction Personnel EC sp’ edu teacher Service coordinator Number of Preschool Children Receiving Special Education Services  i↑’g TABLE 8.3 Age Percentage Receiving Sp’ Edu Services Breakdown by Age 3 21 of Preschool-Age 4 38 Children 5 40  most frequently identified problems for children ages 3-5 from greatest to least are: 1.) speech/lang impairment 2.) dvlpmtal delay 3.) MR 4.) autism 5.) LD 6.) other health impairment 7.) other (includes emo’al disturbance, multiple disabilities, hearing/orthopaedic/visual impairment, deaf-blindness, traumatic brain injury) Educational Environments  Edu’al setting for young CWD  Generally EC classes – 36%  EC sp’ edu classes – 32%  Split general EC classes and EC sp’ edu’ classes – 15%  Residential facility – 0.09%  Separate school – 3%  Itinerant services outside home – 10%  Home instruction – 3%  Reverse mainstreaming 1% DEVELOPMENTAL INDICATORS OF PROBLEMS IN YOUNG CHILDREN  Early signs of problems in young children i.e. often, child will excel in some areas of dvlpmt, while displaying significant lags/difficulty in others  Early warning signs in preschool children: - late talking, compared w/ other children - pronunciation problems - slow vocab growth, often unable to find right word - difficulty rhyming words - trouble learning #s, alphabet, days of week - extremely restless and easily distracted - trouble interacting w/ peers - poor ability to follow directions  Dvlpmtal indictaors: - gross-motor skills—appear clumsy in walking, jumping, hopping, running, skipping, catching skills - fine-motor skills—slow in learning to dress themselves, eating skills, using buttons and zippers, using pencils and crayons, difficulty doing puzzles, using scissors in cutting activities, slow laborious handwriting - auditory processing—can hear, but have difficulty in processing what they hear - visual processing—problems in visual discrimination of letters and words, visual memory - communication and lang skills—difficulty listening, responding to instructions, initiating comm’ns, explaining, engaging in convos, and comm’g w/ others - problems w/ attention—beh’s of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING  Recurring theme t/o hist of sp’ edu is concern for motor dvlpmt  DSM-IV classifies severe problems in motor skills as developmental coordination disorder (DCD) 1.) delays in dvlpmtal milestones 2.) dropping things 3.) clumsiness 4.) poor performance in sports 5.) poor handwriting  IEP can designate use of related services, such as adapted phys edu or OTs The Importance of Motor Development  Cornerstone of child dvlpmt  Intervention strategies include methods for building motor skills, spatial awareness, and motor planning  Can help child become happier, more confident, more available for learning and also foster soc interactions  When motor curriculum req`s child to go t/, under, over, btwn, and around obstacles, also learning important cog and lang skills Perceptual Motor Development  t/ PMD, child integrates motor beh’s and perception (visual, auditory, tactile, and kinaesthetic perception)  Children who have normal perceptual motor dvlpmt establish solid and reliable concept of world, a stable perceptual motor world, by the time they encounter academic tasks at age 6  In contrast, children w/ difficulty w/ PMD must content w/ perceptual motor world tht is unstable and unreliable Sensory Integration  OTs trained in rel’nshp btwn brain physiology and f’n (TF) use SI therapy w/ children who have Ds in several sensory SI f’ns, which interfere w/ awareness of their body and body mvmts  3 systems involved in SI: (1) tactile system; (2) vestibular system; and (3) proprioceptive system Tactile System  Involves sense of touch and stimulation of skin surfaces  Tactile defensiveness = exp’ discomfort when touched by another person  Methods of SI used by OTs: touching and rubbing skin surfaces, using lotions, brushing skin surfaces Vestibular System  Involves inner ear and enables indvdls to detect motion  Allows children to know where their head is in space and how to handle gravity  Children w/ vestibular Ds fall
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