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PSYCH 312 (33)
Chapter 11

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University of Waterloo
Ernie Mac Kinnon

[ CHAPTER ELEVEN ] SPOKEN LANGUAGE DIFFICULTIES: LISTENING AND SPEAKING THEORIES SPOKEN LANGUAGE, READING, AND WRITING: AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM  When child exhibits lang difficulty in one form, underlying lang deficit often reappears in other forms i.e. lang delay at age 5, reading D at age 8 and writing D at age 14  By becoming familiar w/ sounds of lang (t/ early exp’s of stories, songs, and rhymes), children dvlp lang base for reading Forms of the Language System  Acquisition of lang skills follows general sequence of dvlpmt: (1) listening, (2) speaking, (3) reading, and (4) writing  Primary language system – oral skills of listening and speaking (since dvlp’d 1 )  Secondary language system – reading and writing  Input/Receptive skills – feed info into CNS; listening and reading  Output/Expressive skills – ideas originate in brain and are sent outward; speaking and writing  Students should not be assigned to produce output (i.e. oral report) before they have been exposed to adequate input exp’s (i.e. discussions, graphic organizers, reading) Language as a Communication Process  Consists of sending a msg—expressive language—and receiving a msg—receptive language  Understanding comm’n process helps teachers deal w/ comm’n problems of students w/ lang disabilities TEACHING LANGUAGE IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM  Encourage students to use spoken lang during class session: - find areas of interest students want to talk abt - students can explain activity to classmates  Teach vocab related to area of study  Provide good lang models  Use role playing and acting out of stories HOW DO CHILDREN ACQUIRE LANGAUGE?  Imitation and reinforcement  Innate factors: implies tht child’s lang will naturally dvlp & flourish if child given stimulating lang env  Social factors COMPONENTS OF THE LANGUAGE SYSTEM Phonology  Speech sounds in a lang  Phoneme – smallest unit of sound in lang sys i.e. word cat contains 3 phonemes: k-a-t  Phonics – recognition, analysis, and synthesis of phoneme elements in written words Morphology  Meaning units in lang  Morpheme – smallest unit of meaning  Children unaware of exceptions to morphemic rule may over-generalize i.e. past of fight and go as fighted and goed Syntax  Grammar sys of lang; way words are strung together to form sentences  Active form of sentence—―Mother bakes cookies‖—is easier to comprehend than passive form—―The cookies are baked by mother‖ Semantics  Vocab sys or word meanings in lang  Student w/ semantic may understand concept but may not possess appropriate word to express it i.e. when referring to twins: “two girls with the same face” Pragmatics  Soc side of lang; how speaker uses lang in their env  Intonation – sound patterns of spoken lang, including pitch (melody), stress (accent), and juncture (pauses) TYPES OF LANGUAGE PROBLEMS Language Disorders vs. Speech Disorders  Speech disorders – abnormalities of producing sounds (i.e. articulation/fluency difficulties or voice Ds)  Language disorders – encompass entire spectrum of comm’n Delayed Speech  May not speak at all, or may use very little lang at age when lang normally dvlps  Otitis media – infection of middle ear tht can cause temporary hearing loss - even if hearing loss is temporary and mild, can lead to lang delay if it occurs at stage critical to lang learning in young children Phonological Awareness  Child’s ability to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken words  Successful beginning readers must be aware of phoneme sounds w/in words to appreciate words ―cat‖ and ―bat‖ differ in sgl phoneme sound  Can be taught and helped in reading  Effective in kindergarten and first grade; also helps older students, all SES groups, and bilingual students  Can be successfully taught by many diff method  Usually used for avg instructional session of 25min  Can be taught by classroom teachers used along w/ printed letters Temporal Acoustical Processing  Speech sounds come in too fast for children to recognize and decipher  Fast ForWord – computer program alters acoustics of speech, drawing out sounds and then speeding them up, by stretching out certain sounds and emphasizing rapidly changing speech components by making them slower & louder Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Word Finding  Children w/ these difficulties cannot quickly & AT’ly name objects and are slow at recalling correct words Language Disorders  Acquired aphasia – adults who lose ability to speak b/c of brain damage from stroke/disease/accident  Developmental aphasia – children who have severe difficulty in acq’g oral lang  Receptive language disorders – difficulty in understanding lang i.e. may be able to understand sgl words but difficulty understanding a sentence using those words  Expressive language disorders – difficulty in producing spoken lang – can understand speech and lang produced by others, dN have muscular paralysis tht prevents them from talking, and do well on nonverbal tasks  Dysnomia – word-finding problem or deficiency in remembering & expressing words i.e. may substitute word (such as “thing”) for every object they cannot remember CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY IN ORAL LANGUAGE Nonstandard English  Students who have learned only a dialect Standard English, and lang itself, may find school work difficult English-Language Learners (ELL)  Students who use their native lang and not proficient in English  Child’s native lang provides foundation upon which English lang skills are built - students who use native lang effectively likely to acq and use English appropriately, but students who have problems in native lang also exp’ problems in English aslang  Effective practices for supporting ELL: - be responsive to cultural and indvdl diversity - help students transfer what is learned in one lang to other lang - encourage home-school collaboration - encourage comm’n among general and sp’ edu staff members Learning a Second Language  ESL method: - used in classes tht have students from many diff lang bg’s nd - students learn t/ carefully ctrl’d oral repetitions of selected 2 -lang patterns  Bilingual instruction: - used when all students from one lang bg - use native lang for one portion of school andlang for other  Sheltered English: - teaching children who have some proficiency in English - have students learn English more rapidly t/ instruction w/ printed materials written in English (typically used for content-area subjects) - native lang used for part of day  Immersion instruction: - students receive extensive exposure to lang - used in Canada to teach French to English-speaking children by enrolling them in French-speaking immersion schools Disproportionality  Issue: culturally and linguistically diverse students disproportionately enrolled in sp’ edu and placed in more segregated settings  To form more just and equitable society for all students, important for educational sys to correct inequities of minority and ELL students EARLY LITERACY AND ORAL LANGAUGE  Early literacy – child’s early entrance into comprehensive world of words, lang, books, poetry, and stories  Especially important tht CWLD and RMD be given abundant and rich literature env’  Activities to promote: - use word and sound games - encourage early writing
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