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Chapter 12

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 312
Professor
Ernie Mac Kinnon
Semester
Summer

Description
[ CHAPTER TWELVE ] READING DIFFICULTIES THEORIES THE CONSEQUENCES OF READING DISABILITIES  w/o ability to read, opportunities for academic and occupational success are limited - also rises to level of mj public hlth problem  80% SWLD and RMD encounter reading disabilities  Critical to identify early rd th - 74% of children unsuccessful in reading in 3 grade still unsuccessful in 9 grade  Wait-and-fail method – policy of not promptly addressing reading difficulties of young children but, instead, waiting to do so when they are older  Char’s of children at most risk: - lack phonemic awareness (or sensitivity to sounds of lang) - not familiar w/ letters of alphabet - may not understand purpose of print - often lack sufficient oral lang and verbal skills and have meagre vocabs  Efficient reading is key skill for maintaining employment or retraining for another job  Children must first learn to read so that they may later read to learn READING STRATEGIES FOR THE GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM  General mod’s: - i↑ amnt of repetition and review - allot more time for completing work - provide more examples and activities - introduce work more slowly  Phonics: - play word & rhyming games - analyze phoneme elements tht make up a word - build word families  Fluency: - help students recognize sight words - find opportunities for students to reread passages aloud - use predictable books - use read-along methods - use lang exp’ method to let children read own lang  Vocabulary: - teach content vocab before reading ch. in sci/soc studies text - find words in student’s areas of interest and use these words for study - use word webs to study vocab words  Reading comprehension: - provide students w/ bg knowledge abt story/content-area reading - have students predict what will happen next in story - use graphic organizers to visualize reading passage - show movies/videos abt book to enhance interest - have students act out passages in a story DYSLEXIA  Difficult to recognize letters and words and to interpret info presented in print form  May still be intelligent and have strong math/spatial skills, and/or excel in other facets of life  Has biological basis and caused by disruption in neural circuits in brain  Problems persist into adolescence and adulthood  Has perceptual, cognitive, and lang dimensions  Leads to difficulties in many areas of life as indvdl matures  Ppl w/ dyslexia tend to find ingenious ways to hide their disability ELEMENTS OF READING  Conclusions of National Reading Panel included a list of key reading components: 1.) phonemic awareness 2.) phonics 3.) fluency 4.) vocabulary 5.) text comprehension PHONEMIC AWARENESS  Ability to notice, think abt, and work wé indvdl sounds in spoken words  Phonological awareness – ability to identify & manipulate larger parts of spoken lang (i.e. words, rhymes) as well as phonemes PHONICS AND WORD-RECOGNITION SKILLS  Word recognition  meaning of text  Learning word-recognition skills early leads to wider reading abilities in school and out of school  Word-recognition procedures: (1) phonics, (2) sight words, (3) context clues, and (4) structural analysis Phonics  Rel’nshp btwn printed letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes) in lang  Involves learning correspondence of lang sounds to written letters and applying tht knowledge in recognizing words and reading  Breaking the code – decode printed lang & translate into sounds t/ symbol-sound rel’nsp  Need direct instruction in phonics and decoding tht makes rel’nshp btwn printed letters and sounds explicit  Explicit code-emphasis instruction – helps children dvlp basis for remembering rel’nshp o sounds to printed letters and for deriving meaning of printed words  Systematic phonics instruction is: - beneficial to students regardless of SES - effective when delivered t/ tutoring, small groups, or classes Teacher Knowledge About Phonics  Some teachers dN remember learning phonics themselves, and many dN receive adequate phonics instruction during teacher training Types of Phonics Approaches  Synthetic phonics – teaching students explicitly to convert letters into sounds (or phonemes) and then blend sounds to form recognizable words i.e. take word stop. Break into sounds: s/t/o/p. Then blend sounds into the word.  Analytic phonics – teaching students to analyze letter-sound rel’ns in previously learned words to avoid pronouncing sounds in isolation i.e. analyze sounds in whole word making  Analogy phonics – recognizing tht rhyme segment of unfamiliar word is identical to tht of familiar word i.e. known word kick; new word brick. Known word sing; new word ring.  Embedded phonics – teaching students phonics skills by embedding phonics instruction in text reading; more implicit approach tht relies on incidental learning i.e. instruction in phonics skills is incidental and taught during reading of a text  Phonics t/ spelling – teaching students phonics t/ spelling instruction & to segment words into phonemes i.e. students are instructed to spell words phonemically Sight Words  Words tht are recognized instantly, w/o hesitation or further analysis  Problems caused by undependable written form of English can be approached in two ways: 1.) Introduce only small # of words at a time, selecting words on basis of frequency of use 2.) Simplify the initial learning phase by selecting only words tht have a consistent sound-symbol spelling rel’nshp Context Clues  Help student recognize word t/ meaning/context of sentence/paragraph in which word appears  Instruction best done by actual reading Structural Analysis  Recognition of words t/ analysis of meaningful word units such as prefixes, suffixes, root words, cmpd words, and syllables  These clues, combined w/ context of sentence, may be sufficient for recognizing word FLUENCY  Ability to read connected text rapidly, effortlessly, and AT’ly  Must dvlp fluency to make bridge from word recognition to reading comprehension Building a Sight Vocabulary  Fluent reading req’s tht most of the words in a selection be recognized as sight words - when selection contains too many difficult (non-sight) words, the reading material will be too arduous and frustrating for the reader Automaticity  Fast, accurate, and effortless word identification at single word level Recognizing Syllables  Pwrful tool to dvlp AT word recognition is to teach students visual patterns in six syllables types: - closed: closed w/ a consonant, vowel makes its short sound (i.e. pot) - open: ends in a vowel, vowel makes its long sound (i.e. go) - silent e: ends in vowel consonant e, vowel makes it long sound (i.e. cake) - vowel combination: two vowels together make a sound (i.e. coat) - controlled r: contain a vowel plus r, vowel sound is changed (i.e. card) - consonant + le: at the end of a word (i.e. ta/ble) Repeated Reading  Instructional strategy in which students read passage aloud several times  Improves fluency, comprehension, and overall reading achievement Other Methods to Improve Reading Fluency i. Read-along method: teacher and one student read passage together orally ii. Paired reading:stwo students read in pairs, alt’g pages; provides extensive reading practice for both students iii. Echo reading: 1 , teacher models oral reading passage, and then student asked to imitate teacher’s reading iv. Reading aloud to other audience: children can read aloud to willing listeners (i.e. family and even pets) VOCABULARY  Occupies central position in learning to read  Vocab knowledge req’s reader to not only know word, but also to apply it appropriately in context  Knowing diffs btwn oral vocab and reading vocab  Indirect instruction include expansive use of oral lang and students reading extensively on own  In direct instruction, words are explicitly taught using word-learning strategies  Important to recognize students learn words gradually - most words req’ 20 exposures in context before adequate grasp of meaning acq’d - stages: 1.) unknown – word is unfamiliar and meaning unknown 2.) acquainted – word is somewhat familiar, reader understands the basic meaning 3.) established – word is very familiar, reader immediately knows the meaning and uses the word correctly COMPREHENSION  Gathering meaning from the printed page  Major problem for many students w/ reading disabilities  dN AT’ly evolve after word-recognition skills have been learned Views of Reading Comprehension  Reading comprehension – active process tht req’s intentional and thoughtful interaction btwn reader & text – involves thinking – reader’s bg knowledge, interest, and reading situation all affect comprehension Reading Comprehension Depends on What the Reader Brings to the Written Material  When reader has limited knowledge to relate to text content, no amnt of rereading will i↑ comprehension Reading Comprehension Is a Thinking Process  Thorndike (1917): likened thinking process used in math to that of reading - as in problem solving, reader must employ concepts, dvlp & test hypotheses, and modify concepts  Key to teaching from this perspective is to guide students to set up own q’ns and purposes for reading and then read to solve problems they devised for themselves  directed reading-thinking activity (DRTA) Reading Comprehension Requires Active Interaction With the Text  Evidence tht good readers generally dN read every word of a passage; instead, they ―sample‖ certain words to dtrmn meaning and skip many others  They go back and read every word only when they encounter sth unexpected Strategies to Promote Reading Comprehension 1. Comprehension monitoring: learn how to be aware of their understanding of the material 2. Cooperative learning: learn reading strategies together 3. Using graphic and semantic organizers, including story maps: make graphic rep’ns of material to assist their comprehension 4. Question answering: answer q’ns posed by teacher and receive immediate feedback 5. Question generation: ask themselves q’ns abt various aspects of story 6. Story structure: taught how to use structure of story as means of helping them recall story content in order to answer q’ns abt what they have to read 7. Summarization: taught to integrate ideas and to generalize from text info Themes Instruction Program for Children with Reading Disabilities 1. Pre-reading discussion on purpose of lesson and topic of story tht will be read 2. Reading the story 3. Discussion of important story info using organized (schema) q’ns as guide 4. Identification of theme for story, stated in general terms to be relevant to variety of stories and situations 5. Practice in applying generalized theme to real-life exp’s Comprehension Activities Before, During, and After Reading Before  Establish purpose for reading  Review vocab  Build bg knowledge  Relate bg knowledge and info to story  Encourage children to predict what the story will be abt  Discuss author if such knowledge helps set up story During  Direct attention to difficult/subtle dimensions of text  Point out difficult words and ideas  Ask students to identify problems & sol’ns  Encourage silent reading  Encourage students to monitor own comprehension while reading  Insert author info in story After  Ask students to retell/summarize story  Create graphic organizers (i.e. webs, c&e charts, outlines)  Put picture sof story events in order  Link bg info  Generate q’ns for other children  Have students write own reac’ns to stories and factual material Comprehension of Narrative and Informational Text  Narrative materials – stories tht are usually fiction – have characters, plot, and sequence of events – to read effectively, must be able to identify important characters, setting & time & place, mj events in sequence, problem tht characters has to solve and how those problems were resolved  Informational materials – nonfictional materials tht provide new knowledge abt a subject – major problems in content-area reading for SWLD and RMD: 1.) heavy emphasis on reading to obtain info 2.) content textbooks generally written above grade level used 3.) content-area teachers often assume students have adequate reading ability, and dN teach reading skills THE R
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