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Chapter 13

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School
University of Waterloo
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 312
Professor
Ernie Mac Kinnon
Semester
Summer

Description
[ CHAPTER THIRTEEN ] WRITTEN LANGUAGE: WRITTEN EXPRESSION, SPELLING, AND WRITING THEORIES  Writing is most sophisticated and complex achievement of lang sys WRITTEN EXPRESSION The Writing Connection in the Integrated Language System  Writing is an active process: - must actively work at producing sth tht dNe before by using own bg knowledge and integrating their lang skills - process of revising req’s rethinking and reconstruction - when writing, hover half of writing time is devoted to reading Early Literacy and Writing  Early literacy – young child’s early entrance into world of words, lang, and stories  Concept of early literacy emphasizes interrelatedness of various forms of lang in child’s dvlpmt  Philosophy of early literacy instruction suggests writing may be easier than reading and may actually dvlp earlier than reading - writing is more self-involving - reading req’s reader to be able to interpret another’s ideas and use of lang  Writing helps children understand tht, in English, print progresses from left to right  Young children encouraged to explore and play w/ writing - invented spelling—follow own spelling rules  Early writing i↑’s child’s awareness of phonological properties of lang The Writing Process  Traditional writing product approach emphasized written assignment created by writer - teacher’s checking and grading of written product based on certain expectations of perfection  Writing process approach focuses on entire process tht writers use in dvlp’g written document  Emphasizes thinking tht goes on during writing - thus, teachers encouraged to understand complexity of writing process as they help students think abt, select, and organize tasks  Stage 1 (Prewriting): - gather ideas and refines them before beginning formal writing - identifies intended audience Stage 2 (Drafting): - records ideas on paper - written for writer and not reader - at this stage, may be overflow of ideas, w/ little org’n/consideration of prose, grammar and spelling  Stage 3 (Revising): refines draft version by revising and editing  Stage 4 (Sharing with an audience): - provides opportunity to receive feedback - can be shared as: publication, presentation, puppet show Principles for Teaching the Writing Process 1. During prewriting stage, writing process req’s much time, input and attention 2. Drafting stage frees students from undue concentration on mechanics of writing 3. Revising stage helps students edit their work 4. Avoid excessive corrections of students’ written work - when students receive –ve reinforcements, they soon learn to beat the game (limit writing vocab to words they know how to spell, keep sentences simple, and avoid complex and creative ideas) The Learning Strategy Approach to Writing  Self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) – explicit, structured approach to teaching writing  Goals of SRSD: 1.) help students dvlp knowledge of writing and strategies involved in writing process 2.) support students in ongoing dvlpmt of abilities needed to monitor & manage writing 3.) promote students’ dvlpmt of +ve attitudes abt writing and themselves as writers  Stage 1: dvlp bg knowledge  Stage 2: discuss it  Stage 3: model it  Stage 4: memorize it  Stage 5: support it  Stage 6: (i) performance Strategies for Writing Personal Journals  Teachers should be careful not to correct grammatical/spelling errors b/c this practice undermines student’s confidence and may d↓ amnt of writing Written Conversations  Btwn teacher and student or btwn 2 students Patterned Writing  Students use favourite predictable book w/ patterned writing and write own v. i.e. Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? Graphic Organizers  Visual displays tht organize and structure ideas and concepts i.e. Venn diagram Drawing Pictures  Visual areas of learning often area of strength and should be encouraged Computers and Word Processing  Students can write w/o worrying abt handwriting and can revise w/o making mess of written document Electronic Keyboards  Files stored on a disk, which can be transferred to PC/Mac  Can print by connecting to any printer  i.e. Alphasmart, Dana, Nero Advantages of Word Processing  Motivation  Collaboration  Ease of revision  Help w/ fine-motor problems; to use word processor, students must learn typing/keyboarding skills  Sp’ f/s Word-Prediction Programs  Work together w/ word processor to predict word user wants to enter into computer  When user types first 1 or 2 letters, word-prediction software offers list of words beginning w/ tht letter  Can also predict next word in sentence even before letters of next word are entered Voice-Recognition Systems  Dictation programs tht allow person to operate computer by speaking to it SPELLING  Difficult b/c written form of English has inconsistent pattern  Indvdls who are poor in decoding words in reading are almost always poor in spelling as well Developmental Stages of Learning to Spell  Stage 1: dvlp’g pre-phonetic writing (ages 1-7) - children scribble, identify pics, draw, imitate writing, and learn to make letters  Stage 2: using letter names and beginning phonetic strategies (ages 5-9) - children attempt to use phoneme rep’ns but exhibit limited knowledge - use invented spelling by letter name (i.e. HIKT for hiked, LRN for learn)  Stage 3: using written word patterns (ages 6-12) - spelling attempts are readable, pronounceable, and recognizable, and they approximate conventional spelling even though not precise (i.e. offis for office) - invented spellings follow rules of short vowel and long vowel markers  Stage 4: using syllable junctures and multisyllabic words (ages 8-18) - display errors in multisyllabic words - invented spelling errors occur at syllable juncture and schwa positions and follow deviational rules (i.e. usage for usage)  Stage 5: dvlp’g mature spelling perspective (ages 10-adult) - previously acceptable invented spellings now viewed as errors - b/c of many exceptions in English, indvdls should learn to rely on backup sources (i.e. dictionaries, computer spelling checks) Problems Related to Spelling  Spelling req’s many diff abilities: phonological awareness, structural analysis, visualization of appearance of word, writing the word  To spell a word correctly, indvdl must not only have stored word in memory, but also able to completely retrieve it from memory w/o help from visual cues Invented Spelling  Children who are encouraged to use invented spelling and to write anything they want in w/e way they can are much more willing to write - learn to take risks in failure-free env’ & come to
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