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Chapter 9

Textbook Notes - Chapter 9.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 338
Professor
Doug Brown
Semester
Summer

Description
Leadership – Chapter 9 Learning Objectives: 1. Define leadership and discuss role of formal and strategic leadership a. Leadership: influence that particular individuals exert on goal achievement of others in organisational context b. Strategic leadership: ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization 2. Explain and critically evaluate the trait approach to leadership a. Traits: individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability, and personality i. Intelligence, energy, self-confidence, dominance, motivation to lead, emotional stability, honesty and integrity, need for achievement ii. Big Five: agreeableness, extraversion, openness to experience iii. Failure to take into account the situation in which leadership occurs 3. Explain the concepts of consideration, initiating structure, and leader reward and punishment behaviour and their consequences a. Consideration: extent to which leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employees  follower satisfaction, motivation, leader effectiveness b. Initiating structure: degree to which leader concentrates on group goal attainment  job performance and group performance c. Leader reward behaviour: leader’s use of compliments, tangible benefits and deserved special treatment d. Leader punishment behaviour: leader’s use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active withholding of rewards 4. Describe and evaluate Fiedler’s Contingency Theory, Cognitive Resource Theory, and House’s path-goal theory a. Contingency theory: Fred Fiedler’s theory that states that the association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence i. Least preferred co-worker: current/past-co-worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task 1. High LPC  relationship-oriented 2. Low LPC  task oriented ii. Situational favourableness: 1. Leader-member relations 2. Task structure 3. Position power a. Task orientation most effective when leadership situation is favourable or unfavourable b. Relationship orientation most effective in conditions of medium favourability b. Cognitive resource theory: focuses on conditions in which a leader’s cognitive resources (intelligence, expertise, experience) contribute to effective leadership i. Directiveness of leader ii. Group support for leader iii. Stressfullness of situation c. House’s Path-Goal Theory: Robert House’s theory concerned with the situations under which various leader behaviours (directive, supportive, participative, achievement- oriented) are most effective i. Situational factors: 1. Employee characteristics 2. Environmental factors 5. Explain how and when to use participative leadership using the Vroom and Jago model a. Participative leadership: involving employees in making work-related decisions i. ADV: 1. Motivation 2. Quality 3. Acceptance ii. DIS: 1. Time and energy 2. Loss of power 3. Lack of receptivity or knowledge b. Vroom and Jago Situational Model i. Autocratic ii. Consultative iii. Group c. Decision Tree: i. Quality Requirement ii. Commitment requirement iii. Leader’s information iv. Problem structure v. Commitment probability vi. Goal congruence vii. Subordinate conflict viii. Subordinate information 6. Describe and evaluate Leader-Member Exchange Theory a. Focuses on quality of relationship that develops between a leader and employee 7. Discuss the merits of transactional and transformational leadership a. Transactional leadership: leadership based on straightforward exchange relationship
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