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Chapter 13

Textbook Notes - Chapter 13.docx

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University of Waterloo
Doug Brown

Chapter 13 – Conflict and Stress Learning Objectives: 1. Define interpersonal conflict and review its causes in organizations a. Interpersonal conflict: process that occurs when one person, group, or organizational subunit frustrates the goal attainment of another i. Antagonistic behaviour: name calling, sabotage, physical aggression b. Causes: i. Group identification and intergroup bias 1. Boosts self-esteem, social solidarity 2. Personal characteristics, job function, job level ii. Interdependence 1. Necessitates interaction between parties so that they can coordinate their interests 2. Each party has some power over the other iii. Differences in power, status, culture 1. Power: dependence not mutual, but one-way 2. Status: when lower status gives orders to higher status people 3. Culture: when two or more very different cultures develop, and there is a clash in beliefs and values iv. Ambiguity 1. Goals, jurisdictions, performance  formal/informal rules break down, difficult to assign praise/blame v. Scarce resources 2. Explain the types of conflict and the process by which conflict occurs a. Types: i. Relationship conflict: interpersonal tensions among individuals that have to do with their relationship per se, not the task at hand ii. Task conflict: disagreements about the nature of the work to be done iii. Process conflict: disagreements about how work should be organized and accomplished b. Conflict dynamics: i. Winning more important than solution ii. Parties conceal information from each other iii. Each side becomes more cohesive iv. Contact with opposite party discouraged v. Opposite party negatively stereotyped vi. More aggressive people who are skilled at engaging in conflict may emerge as leaders 3. Discuss the various modes of managing conflict a. Avoiding: a conflict management style characterized by low assertiveness of one’s own interests and low cooperation with the other party i. Issue is trivial, info lacking, people need to cool down, or opponent very powerful/hostile b. Accommodating: conflict management style in which one cooperates with the other party while not asserting one’s own interests i. When you are wrong, issue more important to other party, want to build good will c. Competing: conflict management style that maximizes assertiveness and minimizes cooperation i. Have a lot of power, sure of your facts, situation truly win/lose, will not have to interact in future d. Compromise: conflict management style that combines intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation i. Scarce resources, fallback when other strategies fail e. Collaborating: conflict management style that maximizes both assertiveness and cooperation i. Conflict not intense, each party has useful info, manage conflict inside organizations 4. Review a range of negotiation techniques a. Negotiation: decision-making process among interdependent parties who do not share identical preferences i. Distributive negotiation: win-lose negotiation in which a fixed amount of assets is divided between parties 1. Threats and promises a. Threats: punish other party if they do not concede to your position  party has power over another, no future negotiations b. Promises: pledges that concessions will lead to rewards in future  party has less power, future negotiations 2. Firmness versus concessions 3. persuasion ii. Integrative negotiation: win-win negotiation that assumes that mutual problem solving can enlarge the assets to be divided between parties 1. Copious information exchange 2. Framing differences as opportunities 3. Cutting costs 4. Increasing resources 5. Introducing superordinate goals: attractive outcomes that can be achieved only by collaboration iii. Third- party involvement 1. Mediation: neutral third party helps to facilitate a negotiated agreement a. Aid process/atmosphere b. Intervene in content 2. Arbitration: third party given authority to dictate terms of settlement of conflict a. Conventional arbitration: arbitrator chooses any outcome b. Final offer arbitration: each party makes final offer and arbitrator chooses one of them 5. Discuss the merits of stimulating conflict a. Promotes necessary organizational change: i. Conflict  change  adaptation  survival b. Bring new ideas, monitor other’s performance more carefully, redistribution of power c. Conflict stimulation: strategy of incr
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