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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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University of Waterloo
Doug Brown

Chapter 4 – Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour Learning Objectives: 1. Define values and discuss the implications of cross-cultural variation in values for organizational behaviour a. Values: broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others i. Preference: what we consider good/bad ii. Broad tendency: values are general – do not predict behaviour in specific situations well b. Cultural differences in values: i. Work centrality: 1. Japan>America/Belgium>Britain a. Work more hours ii. Hofstede Study – four basic dimensions work-related values differed across cultures 1. Power distance: extent to which unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members 2. Uncertainty avoidance: extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations 3. Masculinity/femininity a. masculine cultures differentiate gender roles, support male dominance, stress economic performance b. feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality, stress quality of life i. assertiveness, and gender equality value 4. Individualism/collectivism: a. Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy b. Collective cultures favour interdependence, and loyalty to family/clan i. Collective distribution of resources, and group/org loyalty 5. Long-term/short-term orientation (eastern cultures) a. Long-term orientation stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, close attention to status differences b. Short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social niceties iii. Implications of cultural variation 1. Exporting OB theories – do not translate well across cultures 2. Importing OB theories – not all designed in North America/West 3. Appreciating global customers – needs/tastes around the world 4. Developing global employees – appreciation of differences 2. Define attitudes and explain how people develop and change attitudes a. Attitudes: fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people i. Belief + Value  Attitude  Behaviour 3. Explain the concept of job satisfaction and discuss some of its key contributors, including discrepancy, fairness, disposition, mood, and emotion a. Job satisfaction: collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs i. Facet satisfaction: tendency for employee to be more/less satisfied with various facets of job ii. Overall satisfaction: average/total of the attitudes individuals hold toward various facets of job iii. Key contributors - specific: 1. Discrepancy: theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained 2. Fairness: a. Distributive: fairness that occurs when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve from their jobs i. Equity theory: job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the inputs on invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group ii. Inputs: anything that people give up, offer, or trade to their organization in exchange for outcomes iii. Outcomes: factors that an organization distributes to
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