PSYCH101 Chapter Notes -Nociception, Color Vision, Detection Theory

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH101
Module 4: Sensation and Perception
(4.1) Sensation and Perception at a Glance
Sensation Process of detecting external events by sense organs and turning them into neural
signals
Perception Involves attending to, organizing, and interpreting stimuli that we sense
Sensory Receptors Structures that respond to external stimuli
Transduction Process in which physical or chemical stimulation is converted into nerve
impulse that is relayed to the brain
Sensory Adaptation Reduction of activity in sensory receptors with repeated exposure to a
stimulus
Sense
Stimuli
Type of Receptor
Vision
Light Waves
Light-sensitive structures at back of eye
Hearing
Sound Waves
Hair cells that respond to pressure change
in the ear
Touch
Pressure/Stretching/Piercing of the skin
surface
Different types of nerve endings that
respond to pressure, temp changes, and
pain
Taste
Chemicals on the tongue and mouth
Cells lining the taste buds of tongue
Smell
Chemicals contacting mucus-lined
membranes of the nose
Nerve endings that respond selectively to
different compounds
Steps of sensation to perception: Stimulus -> Sensory Receptors -> (Transduction) -> Neural
Impulses -> Perception
Psychophysics Field of study that explores how physical energy such as light and sound and
their intensity related to psychological experience
Absolute Threshold Minimum amount of energy/quantity of stimulus needed for it to be
dependably detected at least 50% of the time it’s presented
Difference Threshold Smallest detectable difference between stimuli
Signal Detection Theory States whether a stimulus is perceived depends on both sensory
experience and judgment made by the subject
Gestalt Psychology Approach to perception that emphasizes “the whole is greater than the
sum of its part”
Top-Down Processing Occurs when prior knowledge and expectations guide what is
perceived
Bottom-Up Processing Constructing a whole stimulus/concept from parts of raw sensory info
Parallel Processing Refers to simultaneous use of top-down and bottom-up processing as we
perceive and interpret the world
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Document Summary

Module 4: sensation and perception (4. 1) sensation and perception at a glance. Sensation process of detecting external events by sense organs and turning them into neural signals. Perception involves attending to, organizing, and interpreting stimuli that we sense. Sensory receptors structures that respond to external stimuli. Transduction process in which physical or chemical stimulation is converted into nerve impulse that is relayed to the brain. Sensory adaptation reduction of activity in sensory receptors with repeated exposure to a stimulus. Hair cells that respond to pressure change in the ear. Different types of nerve endings that respond to pressure, temp changes, and pain. Nerve endings that respond selectively to different compounds. Steps of sensation to perception: stimulus -> sensory receptors -> (transduction) -> neural. Psychophysics field of study that explores how physical energy such as light and sound and their intensity related to psychological experience.

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