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Chapter 12

PSYCH101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Unconscious Mind, Orbitofrontal Cortex, Reality Principle

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Personality Textbook
12.1 Contemporary Approaches to Personality
Personality: a characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving that is unique to each
individual, and remains consistent over time and situations
Idiographic approach: creating detailed descriptions of a specific person’s unique personality
E.g. criminal profiles and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Nomothetic approach: examine personality in large groups of people with the aim of making
generalizations about personality structure
E.g. Psychologists use to predict certain behaviour
Personality trait: person’s habitual patterns of thinking, and behaving “most of the time”
Barnum effect: easy for people to be convinced that a personality test describe them well
Factor Analysis: used to group items that people respond to similarly
E.g. friendly, warm, and kind are grouped together as a factor
The 5 Factor Model
5 Factor Model: a trait-based theory of personality based on the finding that personality can be
described using five major dimensions
The Personality of Evil
Authoritarian personality: rigid and dogmatic
HEXACO model of personality: 6 factor theory that adds Honest-Humility
High HHS are sincere, honest, faithful while low HHs are greedy and deceitful
Dark Triad: refers to 3 traits (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) that describe a
person who is socially destructive, aggressive, dishonest
Machiavellianism: tendency to be manipulative
Psychopathy: shallow emotional response
Narcissism: egotistical
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Right-wing Authoritarianism: problematic set of personality characteristics
Obeying orders and deferring to established authorities
Supporting aggression against those who differ
Believing in maintaining the existing social order
Infants possess different temperaments right from birth
Well-adjusted (self-control)
Under-controlled (impulsive and emotionally volatile)
Inhibited (socially uncomfortable)
State: temporary physical or psychological engagement that influences a behavior
E.g. angered when waiter brings out wrong dish
4 general situation that influence behaviour
1. Location
2. Associations
3. Activities
4. Subjective states (happy, drunk, sick)
Behaviourist and Social-Cognitive Perspectives
Behaviourist Account of Personality: BF Skinner believed personality was a response tendency
that occurs in different situations
Consequences affect behaviour
Reciprocal determinism: Albert Bandura’s belief that behaviour, internal factors and external
factors interact to determine one another
12.2 Cultural and Biological Approaches to Personality
WEIRD: “Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic”
Majority of world’s study are done on this group
Interpersonal Relatedness: chinese trait of social harmony
Individualistic people had more activity in their prefrontal cortex
Identical twins show a stronger correlation for a personality trait than fraternal even if
separated since birth
Genes > parenting
People who inherited long copies of serotonin gene were biased toward positive images versus
short copies who were predisposed to anxiety
The Brain and Personality
Humorism: explained both physical illness and disorders of personality as a result of imbalances
in body fluids
Blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile
Phrenology: Franz Gall’s theory that personality characteristics could be assessed by carefully
measuring the outer skill
Arousal theory of extraversion: Eysenck argued that extraversion is determined by people’s
threshold for arousal
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