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Chapter 13

PSYCH101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Robert Cialdini, Groupthink, Social Loafing


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
All
Chapter
13

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Social Psychology Combined
Social Influence
ABC’s of Influence
Affect, Behaviour, Cognition
Persuasion
Two cognitive pathways to affect attitudes
1. Central Route Persuasion: going directly through the rational mind, influencing
attitudes with evidence and logic
a. “My product has been proven more effective.”
2. Peripheral Route Persuasion: Changing attitudes by going around the rational mind and
appealing to fears, desires, associations
a. “People who buy my product are happy, attractive!”
Central Route to Persuasion
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
Informational Conformity (Muzafer Sherif)
Conformity: real or imaginary guidelines that we follow that were imposed by society
When placed individually the variance is high from person to person
While placed in a group setting people come to an agreed upon consensus and establish
a norm for something that isn't actually real
When placed individually again the participant conformed to saying what was previously
stated in the group "to get along you go along"
Occurs when people internalize the values and beliefs of the group and accept them
The person is internally accepting the group norm

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Normative Conformity (Soloman Asch)
We're such social beings that we rely on our need to belong. Sometimes we will
conform to the ideas that we think are wrong just to fit in.
A social pressure to adopt a group's perspective in order to be accepted
This leads to public acceptance but not necessarily private acceptance
E.g. All the actors say 2 and so does participant who copies
Experiment showed that conformity can happen through either normative influence
A social pressure to adopt a group's perspective in order to be accepted, rather
than rejected by a group
It also showed informational influence
Which occurs when people internalize the values and beliefs of the group,
coming to believe the same things and feel the same ways themselves
The Bystander Effect: Situational Influences on Helping Behaviour
Bystander Effect : presence of other people reduces the likelihood of helping behaviour
Diffusion of Responsibility: occurs when the responsibility for taking action is spread
across more than one person, thus making no single person responsible
Pluralistic Ignorance: occurs when theres is a disjunction between the private beliefs of
individuals and the public behaviour they display to other
When a group of people can pressure people to do things that not only do they
themselves not agree with, neither does a single person in the group
E.g. Imagine you are sitting in a room and you see smoke coming through the vent, you
being by yourself would get out of the room. Although, if there was a group of people
you wouldn't get up as fast as to not embarrass yourself even though everyone is
wanting to get out
Social Cognition
Explicit Processes: which correspond roughly to "conscious" though, are deliberative,
effortful, relatively slow, and generally under our intentional control
Implicit Processes: comprise our "unconscious" though; they are intuitive, automatic,
effortless, very fast, and operate largely outside of our intentional control
Dual-process models : models of behaviour that account for both implicit & explicit process
Cognitive Dissonance Theory: when we hold inconsistent beliefs, this creates a kind of
aversive inner tension, we are then motivated to reduce tension by creating a bias of all the
good reasons of our side and the negative of the other
Person Perception
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When we make a first impression we rely heavily on implicit processes since we have
very little knowledge of someone we just met
Thin Slices of Behaviour
We make very rapid implicit impression and judgements of people based on thin
slices of behaviour, very small samples of a person's behaviour
The Self in the Social World
False consensus effect: the tendency to project self-concept onto the social world
E.g. loving sports and believing that everyone must love sports as well
Internal Attribution: whereby the observer explains the behaviours of the act in terms of
some innate quality of that person
E.g. When an aggressive driver is on the road and you blame the actions on him
saying he's a jerk
External Attribution: whereby the observer explains the actor's behaviours as the result of
the situation
Eg. When that aggressive driver just got a call from the hospital saying his wife
is going in for surgery and is trying to get there as fast
Fundamental Attribution Error: This tendency to over emphasize internal attributions and
under-emphasize external factors
Two Types of Conformity
Informational Conformity
Normative Conformity
To be right
To be liked
Muzafer Sherif study
Soloman Asch study
Autokinetic effect
Line judgment
Ambiguous stimuli
Unambiguous stimuli
People less likely to conform when
People more likely to conform when
Only one other person is in vicinity
Larger group in vicinity
Only male group members
High proportion of female group members
Only strangers in the room
Friends, family in vicinity
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