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Chapter 7

PSYCH101 Chapter 7: Memory Textbook

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Memory Textbook
7.1 Memory Systems
Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
Includes 3 memory stores: sensory memory, short-term, long-term
Stores - retain info in memory without using it for any specific purpose
short-term and long-term memory
Control processes - shift info from one memory to another
Attention - selects which info will be passed on to short-term memory (STM)
Encoding - some info in STM goes through this which brings info into the LTM system
Retrieval - brings info from LTM back to STM (become aware of existing memories)
Sensory memory: memory store that holds perceptual info for a brief amount of time
Iconic memory: visual form of sensory memory helf for 1 second
Echoic memory: auditory form of sensory memory helf for 1-5 secs
Change blindness: difficult to detect difference between two alternatingly presented
photographs unless focused on specific area with change
One version of the changing item fades from sensory memory just a the next
version appears
Short-term memory: memory store with limited capacity and duration (less than a minute)
Magic Number 7 plus/minus 2
Chunking: organizing smaller units of info into larger, more meaningful units
Eg. phone numbers
Based on experiences and prior knowledge to make meaningful connections

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Memory Textbook
Eg. chess masters have superior STM
Long-term Memory: holds information for extended periods of time (possibly permanently)
Information goes through encoding to enter LTM
No capacity limitations, unlike STM
Organization of information in LTM
Semantic Categories (based on meaning)
Eg. dog with cat
Sounds of words and how they look
Eg. Tip of the tongue phenomenon - can only retrieve similar sounding
Retrieval from LTM to STM influenced by:
Quality of original encoding
Strategies of retrieval
Serial Position Effect: better recall for beginning and end of list
Primacy effect (original items) - begun process of entering LTM
fMRI: activity in hippocampus
Study: presented items in a list quickly; no time to enter LTM but present in
STM, deduction in primacy and no change in recency effect
Proactive interference - fewer resources left to remember new information
Recency effect (later items) - still in STM
fMRI: activity in sensory brain areas - temporal, parietal lobes, lateral areas of
frontal lobes
Retroactive interference - most recent information overshadows some older
memories that have not made it into LTM
Working Memory Model: short term remembering including a combination of memory
components that can temporarily store small amounts of information in a short period of time
Stimuli encoded simultaneously in various ways
Phonological Loop: storage component relying on rehearsal, information as sounds (auditory
Rehearsal: repeating information to help remember it
Word-length effect: people remember more one-syllable short words than longer words
(related to magic number 7)
Visuospatial sketchpad: maintains visual images and spatial layouts in visuospatial code
Objects’ placements around you, where you intend to go
Feature binding: combining visual features into a single unit
Eg. a square with 1 colour as easy to recognize as a square with 2 colours
About 4 whole objects (new magic number)
Episodic Buffer: storage component of working memory that combines images and sounds from
other two components into coherent, story-like episodes
Prose (meaningful sentences) allow memory of more words than random unrelated list
7-10 storage capacity
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