PSYCH101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Carol Dweck, Intelligence Quotient

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1 Aug 2016
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PSYCH 101 – Chapter 9 (Intelligence Testing) Notes
What are anthropometrics?
-Anthropometrics (literally the “measurement of people”) – Method of
measuring physical and mental variation in humans
-What did Galton do?
oBelieved that because people learn about the world through their
senses, those with superior sensory abilities would be more
sensitively attuned to the world, and therefore be able to learn more
about it
oSaid that sensory abilities should be an indicator of a person’s
intelligence – Created a set of 17 sensory tests, such as the highest and
lowest sounds that people could hear or their ability to differentiate
between objects of slightly different weights
-What did Cattell do?
oTook Galton’s tests from England to the United States and began
measured the anthropometric abilities of university students
oResearch revealed that people’s abilities on different sensory tests
was not correlated with each other – or very weakly if anything (Ex.
Having good eyesight didn’t tell you shit about someone’s hearing,
sensory abilities could not predict grades either)
oThis was a problem because if they didn’t correlate, they couldn’t both
be indicators of the same thing – intelligence* …So theory was
abandoned
What did Binet argue in contrast to Galton?
-Argued that intelligence should be indicated by more complex thinking
processes such as memory, attention, and comprehension
-What is the modern-day definition of intelligence that Binet’s view influenced?
oIntelligence – The ability to think, understand, reason, and adapt to or
overcome obstacles
oThis perspective allows us to see how well people are able to reason
and solve problems, as well as see their accumulated knowledge
What test did Binet and Simon develop together?
-French government wanted an objective way of identifying “retarded”
children who could perhaps benefit more from a specialized education
-Settled on 30 tasks that they believed to comprise intelligence – ranging in
order of increasing difficulty – Ex. Forming sentences from predetermined
lists of works, reproducing drawings from memory, being able to explain
how things differed from each other, e.t.c.
-Called the Stanford-Binet Test and adapted by many institutions after
receiving quite the positive reception
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How did Binet and Terman’s interpretation of this test differ?
-Terman - Began describing the test as “A test intended to measure innate
levels of intelligence”
-Binet - Always viewed the test as “A measure of a child’s current abilities, not
as a measure of innate capacity
What did Terman end up doing?
-Adopting William Stern’s concept of the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) –
Calculated by taking a person’s mental age, dividing it by his chronological
age, and then multiplying it by 100
What is the Wechsler adult intelligence scale?
-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Basically an IQ test for adults, but that
also breaks intelligence into a General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive
Proficiency Index (CPI)
oGAI - Computed from scores on Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual
Reasoning – Tap into individual’s intellectual abilities, but without
placing much emphasis on how fast he can solve problems and make
decisions
oCPI - Based on Working Memory and Processing Speed subtests –
Included in the Full Scale IQ category because greater working
memory capacity and processing speed allow more cognitive
resources to be devoted to reasoning and solving problems
What are Raven’s progressive matrices?
-Raven’s Progressive Matrices – An intelligence test that is based on
pictures, and not words. Therefore making it relatively unaffected by
language or cultural background
oMain set of tasks found in this test measure the extent to which test
takers can see patterns in the shapes and colours within a matrix and
then determine which shape or colour will complete the pattern
What has research indicated to be one of the leading potential causes for IQ
differences?
-Stereotype Threat – Occurs when negative stereotypes about a group cause
group members to underperform on ability tests
What 2 beliefs about the nature of intelligence did Carol Dweck develop?
1. Entity Theory – The belief that intelligence is a fixed characteristic and
relatively difficult (or impossible) to change
2. Incremental Theory – The belief that intelligence can be shaped by
experiences, practice, and effort
(Both can have effects on academic performance)
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