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Chapter 4

PSYCH211 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Object Permanence, Intersubjectivity, Egocentrism

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Ori Friedman

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Psych 211
Chapter 4: Theories of Cognitive Development
I. Piaget’s Theory.
A. Four Broad Stages of Cognitive Development.
1. Sensorimotor Stage (birth to age 2)
Understanding of object permanence.
Become capable of deferred imitation.
2. Preoperational Stage (ages 2 to 7)
Become able to represent experience in language and thought.
Limitations like egocentrism and centration hinder problem-solving.
Conservation tasks.
3. Concrete Operations Stage (ages 7 to 12)
Become able to reason logically about concrete objects.
Difficulty succeeding with hypothetical thinking.
Pendulum problem.
4. Formal Operations Stage (ages 12 and beyond)
Gain abilities of hypothetical thinking.
Not a universal stage.
B. Primary Weaknesses of Piaget’s Theory.
1. Depicts children’s thinking as being more consistent than it is.
2. Infants and children are more competent than Piaget recognized.
3. Understates the contribution of the social world to development.
4. Vague about the cognitive processes that give rise to children’s thinking and
about the mechanisms that produce cognitive growth.
II. Information-Processing Theories.
A. Children seen as actively pursuing goals and devising strategies.
B. Basic cognitive processes.
1. Association.
2. Recognition.
3. Generalization.
4. Recollection.
5. Encoding.
C. Strategies enhance learning and memory better than basic processes.
1. Rehearsal.
2. Selective Attention.
D. Development of planning and analogical reasoning.
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