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Psych 253 Organized Lecture/Textbook Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 253
Professor
Hilary B Bergsieker

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Psych 253Social PsychologyDefinition scientific study of the way in which peoples thoughts feelings desires and behaviours are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people in social contexts o Social perception thinking o Social influence o Social interaction relationsSocial perceptionwhat affects the way we perceive ourselves and others o The self do we really know why o who we are and why we feel the way we do o Culture Western vs Asian worldSocial influencehow do we influence each otherSocial interactionwhat causes us to like love and hurt othersCentral themes in psych o Situationism The power of the situation2 broad classes of attributionsPersonSituationBehaviourfperson traits situation featuresSubjectivism Construalso Psychological experience is subjectiveInterpreting making meaning constructing reality o and demandingAmbiguous stimuli complex situations and people o and predictiveConstruals are first step in predicting behaviourConstrualhow we interpretNaiive realism o Tendency to believe I see things as they really areRational others with same info will agree with meAll who disagree are uninformed lazy irrational biased o Ross and colleaguesPeace proposals created by Israeli negotiators given to Israeli citizens to judgeSame proposal labeled as Israeli or Palestinianlabel matters even if exact same termsMotivation what do we want o Belongseek liking intimate relationships acceptance in group o Understandneed for accuracy o Controlselfefficacy autonomy locus of control can control events that effect me o Enhanceneed to feel good about oneself o TrustinterdependenceResearch methodshow the researcher gathers datathe science of social psychology cycleGottmans researchpredict fate of marriages from spousal behaviourParadox of choice fewer choicesgood Changing behaviour everybody else is doing it you should too was most successful signDifferent biases o Hindsight biasoverconfident to have predicted an outcome after knowing it occurred o Confirmation biaswhen evaluating a hypothesis focuses on examples that are trueProblematic insufficient informationWhy do we do it we want it to be trueParticipants o Sampling selecting a subset of population for researchConvenience sample conveniently available but generalizability issueRepresentative sample population relevant to research but difficultProblems nonrandom sampling o Self selection o Hand pickedPs not blind to condition they cant know theres different study groups o Demand characteristicLack of informed consentResearch designs o ObservationalObserving in natural environmentScientific observation purpose planned recordedEg beer consumption front doorback door garbage who is more aggressivePotential pitfallsReactivityOur presenceExperimenter bias o CorrelationalAssociationtwo variable systematically relatedChallengesReverse causationB causes A when we think A causes BConfoundsa third variable variable Z o ExperimentalExperimentalcontrol groupIndependentdependent variable IVDVCorrelation does not mean causation o Shamster Drug Studyanalogy to Case for MarriageThere may be other factors that influence results Week 2 Social Cognition Lecture 3 January 14Puzzle persistence of false beliefs o Ideal scientific facts vs Intuitive thinking feelings examplesExpends effort caution to reach correct conclusions Ideal scientificSeeks out evidence that could falsify a hypothesis Ideal scientificAttends to evidence that violates own hypothesis Ideal scientificDoes not act to alter the observed phenomenon Ideal scientificRushes to judgement by relying on heuristics Intuitive thinkingDos not seek outignores falsifying information Intuitive thinkingIs biased to see patterns matching own expectations Intuitive thinkingActs in ways that alter the observed phenomenon Intuitive thinkingIntuition in action o Inferential HeuristicsEfficient thinking strategy to make quick judgementsSpontaneous trait inferenceautomatic inference of a trait after exposure to ones behaviour eg librarian automatically helpfulrule of thumbmight be true on average but not every instanceFeeling heuristic Judge a topic based on our feelingsProblemso Too much based on feelings than concrete evidence o Irrelevant experiences affect decisionEg Life Satisfaction by Current Weather and Political Outcomes by Sporting event when team won higher approval of political partyWhen we are not reminded of our mood our judgement is colouredRepresentativeness heuristicClassify something according to how similar it seems to a typical case judge by intuitively comparing it to our mental representation of itProblemso Neglects base rate o Conjunction fallacyAvailability heuristicBase a judgement on how easily something can be brought to mind judges likelihood by availability in memoryProblems o Vivid instances come more readily to mind
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