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Chapter Chpt 5,6,11,12

PSYCH257 Chapter Notes - Chapter Chpt 5,6,11,12: Diazepam, Slow-Wave Sleep, Morphine


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH257
Professor
Pamela Seeds
Chapter
Chpt 5,6,11,12

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Chapter 5
Anxiety
is a negative mood state characterized by bodily symptoms of physical tension ad apprehension
about the future
hard to study
not pleasant
too much anxiety leads to lack of concentration
Panic
suddent overwhelming reaction to something
afraid
1. Panic Attack
panic attack
defined as an abrupt experience of intense fear of acute discomfort accompanied by physical
symptoms that usually include heart palpitations, chest pain , shortness of breath and possibly
dizziness
expected and unexpected
DSM
an abrupt surge of intense dear or intense discomfort that reaches a peak within minutes and during
which 4 or more of the following occur
1. palpitations and a pounding heart
2. sweating
3. trembling and shaking
4. sensations of shortness of breath
5. feelings of choking
6. chest pain
7. nausea
8. feeling dizzy and unsteady of faint
9. chills or heat sensations
10. paresthesias
numbing
11. derealization
unreality
12. feeling of going crazy
13. fear of dying
Causes
1. biological
can inherit a tendency to be tense
panic seems to run in families and has a genetic component that differs from that of anxiety
no single gene seems to lead to anxiety or panic
anxiety is linked to neurotransmitters in the brain
GABA
noradrenergic system
serotonergic neurotransmitters are involved

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recent attention to corticotropin releasing factor as a central player in anxiety and the groups of
these gene that increase the likelihood if this system being turned on
CRF activated the HPA it has a wide range of affects on the areas of the brain implicated in
anxiety and includes the emotional brain system such as the hippocampus and amygdala,
prefrontal cortex and dopamine system
also related to GABA , noradrenergic system and erotonergic neurotransmitters
Behavioral Inhibition System
activated by signals from the brain stem of unexpected events such as major changes in body
functioning that may signal danger
BIS receives a big boost from the amygdala
freeze, experience anxiety, evaluate the situation
Fight and Flight
originates in brain stem and travels through several mid brain structures
amygdala, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and central gray matter
immediate alarm response
2. Psychological
early childhood we learn that we can not control all events
this can cause great stress and anxiety especially when the events we learn we can not control
first are traumatizing
actions of parents in early childhood play a great part in this
parents who act in a controlled and predictable way when responding to needs preform an
important function
these parents teach their children that they have control over some things in the environment
and its a positive event
secure home base is important, kids learn that they can leave and come home to things that are
safe and secure and familiar
over protective parents clear the way for their children and are intrusive
dont let them experience control
children dont know how to cope
most psychological accounts of panic invoke conditioning and cognitive explanations that are
difficult to separate
a strong fear response initially occurs during extreme stress or perhaps as a result of a dangerous
situation in the environment
this emotional response then becomes associated with a variety of internal and external cues
these can provoke fear now in other situations similar, even if fear is not needed
ie) you saw a spider crawl near a milk carton
now the milk carton is associated with the spider
every time you see a milk carton, a fear response is invoked
3. Social
stressful life events can trigger biological and psychological vulnerabilities
social and interpersonal stressors are common
marriage, divorce, pressure in school, work
trigger headaches, hypertension and emotional responses
ie) panic attacks
Comorbidity

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1. Related Disorders
co occur because of vulnerabilities
depression
other anxiety and depressive disorders
2. Physical Disorders
co occur with physical conditions
thyroid disease
respiratory disease
arthritis
gastro-intestinal diseases
migraines
allergic conditions
people with these physical conditions are more likely to have an anxiety disorder but are not
anymore likely toy have another psychological disorder
anxiety disorder often begins the physical disorder suggesting that something about having an
anxiety disorder may cause or contribute to physical symptoms
3. suicide
20 percent of those with anxiety disorder have tried to commit suicide
associated with the panic disorder
alarming because it is quite prevalent
Weissman study conforms that having any sort of anxiety or related disorder, not just panic,
increases the chances of having thoughts about suicide pr making attempts but the relationship is
strongest with panic and PTSD
2. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
generalized anxiety disorder
characterized by an intense uncontrollable, unfocused and chronic worry that is distressing and
unproductive accompanied by physical symptoms of tenseness, irritability and restlessness
DSM
An excessive anxiety and worry occurring more days than not for at least 6 months about a number
of events or activities such as work or school
find it difficult not to worry
associated with three or more of the following 6
restlessness or feeling on edge
fatigued
difficulty concentrating
irritability
muscle tension
sleep disturbance
staying asleep, trouble falling asleep, restless sleep
cause distress or impairment
not due to a substance
not better explained by a different disorder
Statistics
worry and physical tension is common
severe generalized anxiety is rare
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