PSYCH261 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Retina Horizontal Cell, Retina, Trichromacy

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Module 5.1 Visual Coding
People see an object when it reflects light that stimulates receptors that transmit information
to the brian
One aspect of coding is which neurons are active. Impulses in certain neurons indicate light,
whereas impulses in others indicate sound, touch, or other sensations
Muller described this insight as the law of specific nerve energies
- Whatever excites a particular nerve establishes a special kind of energy unique to that
nerve
Light enters the eye through an opening in the center of the iris called the pupil
Pupil is focused by the lens and cornea and projected onto the retina, the rear surface of the
eye, which is lined with visual receptors
Light from the left side of the world strikes the right half of the retina, and vice versa
Light from above strikes the bottom half of the retina, and vice versa
Messages go from receptors at the back of the eye to bipolar cells, located closer to the center
of the eye
- Bipolar cells send their messages to ganglion cells, located still closer to the center of
the eye
o The ganglion ells’ axons join together and travel ak to the rain
o The ganglion cell axons join to form the optic nerve that exits through the back
of the eye. The point at which is leaves is the blind spot because it has no
receptors
When you look at details such as letters on this page, you fixate them on the central portion of
your retina, especially the fovea, a tiny area specialized for acute, detailed vision
The ganglion cells in the fovea of humans are called midget ganglion cells because each is small
and responds to just a single cone
Our vision is dominated by what we see in the fovea
Visual path within the eye:
Receptors send their messages to bipolar and horizontal cells they send messages to
ganglion cells the axons of the ganglion cells form the optic nerve which exits the eye at the
blind spot and continues to the brain
Two types of receptors of retina: rods and cones
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Document Summary

People see an object when it reflects light that stimulates receptors that transmit information to the brian. One aspect of coding is which neurons are active. Impulses in certain neurons indicate light, whereas impulses in others indicate sound, touch, or other sensations. Muller described this insight as the law of specific nerve energies. Whatever excites a particular nerve establishes a special kind of energy unique to that nerve. Light enters the eye through an opening in the center of the iris called the pupil. Pupil is focused by the lens and cornea and projected onto the retina, the rear surface of the eye, which is lined with visual receptors. Light from the left side of the world strikes the right half of the retina, and vice versa. Light from above strikes the bottom half of the retina, and vice versa.

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