Psych 261 Chapter 4 Psych 261 Physiological Psychology Kalat: Biological Psychology 10th Edition Chapter 4

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH261
Research Methods
-Behavioural scientists explore human behaviour via scientific method
-tough: complexity of human nature, how to get in people’s minds, link b/w bio and psych dimensions
-must learn proper research methodology
Important Concepts
-2 aspects of abnormal behaviour: nature of the problems reported & etiology (causes) A.B.
Basic Components of a Research Study
-start w/ hypothesis; make research design to test it (including I.V. and D.V.)
-measure validity; Internal (does I.V. cause D.V. to change?) and External: relatable to general world
-Hypothesis: educated guess; must make it testable; testability: ability to support hypothesis
-must also specify an I.V. and D.V.
-confound: any factor occurring in a study that makes the results uninterpretable
-to insure internal validity: use control groups and randomization
-also use analogue models: create comparable aspects in control condition of laboratory
-eg. allowing both bulimic and non-bulemic(control) groups binge eat
-generalizability: extent to which results are applicable to everyone;
-I and E validity usu. inversely related (if control too much, hard to generalize)
Statistical versus Clinical Significance
-statiscal significance: results have a greater size of effect than just chance
-eg. people w/ meds have less # of headaches per day than non medicated
-clinical significance: degree to which results have useful and meaningful applications to real problems
-eg. people w/ meds are still having a large number of headaches (but less than unmedicated)
The average client
-patient uniformity myth: problematic belief by researchers that everyone’s the same
Studying individual cases
-case study method: problems: no scientific method, little I. validity, many confounding variables
Research by Correlation
-correlation: statistical relationship b/w two variables; problem: not imply causation, directionality issue
-positive correlation: variables go together; negative correlation; aka inverse correlation; 1 up -> 1 down
-positive: rep’d as 0 to +1.00; negative rep’d as 0 to -1.00
Epidemiological Research
-Epidemiology: study of the incidence, distribution, and consequences of (a set of) problems
-must determine incidence (# of new cases during a period) and prevalence (# of cases at any time)
-goal: find extent of medical problems; relationship b/w geographical proximity and impact of trauma
Research by Experiment
-experiment: manipulation of an I.V. and its observed effects; to find causality but wary of I validity
Group Experimental Designs
-observe groups to see how diff. variables are assoc’d; use control groups to ensure validity
-ideal: control groups should be very similar to experimental group;
-also: must check for placebo/allegiance effects; eg. “placebo control groups” or “double-blind control”
Comparative Treatment Research
-diff. treatment to 2 or more comparable groups (via randomization) assess how each treatment helped
-focus on process (how & why it works) and outcome (positive/negative results of treatment
Single-case Experimental Designs
-Skinner: formalized concept of SCED; systematic study of indiv. Under variety of exp. Conditions
-use various strategies to reduce confounds, increase I validity
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Document Summary

Positive: rep"d as 0 to +1. 00; negative rep"d as 0 to -1. 00. Eg. people w/ meds have less # of headaches per day than non medicated. Eg. allowing both bulimic and non-bulemic(control) groups binge eat. I and e validity usu. inversely related (if control too much, hard to generalize) Behavioural scientists explore human behaviour via scientific method. Tough: complexity of human nature, how to get in people"s minds, link b/w bio and psych dimensions. 2 aspects of abnormal behaviour: nature of the problems reported & etiology (causes) a. b. Start w/ hypothesis; make research design to test it (including i. v. and d. v. ) Measure validity; internal (does i. v. cause d. v. to change?) and external: relatable to general world. Hypothesis: educated guess; must make it testable; testability: ability to support hypothesis. Confound: any factor occurring in a study that makes the results uninterpretable. To insure internal validity: use control groups and randomization.

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