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Chapter 3

Chapter 3.docx

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Ernie Mac Kinnon

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What is Clinical Teaching?
Goal: tailor learning exp’s for unique needs of indvdl student
By using info gathered t/ eval’n of student, along w/ analysis of student’s specific learning characteristics,
clinical teacher designs plan of instruction for tht student
Assessment and instruction are cont’ous and interwoven and mod’d as new needs become apparent
Five stages of clinical teaching cycle are:
1.) assessment process of gathering evidence abt student’s skills/knowledge; administered t/
test/integral part of instruction
2.) planning of teaching task assessment info used to plan instruction
3.) implementation of teaching plan involves actual teaching
4.) eval’n of student performance teacher eval’s how well student has responded to teaching
5) mod’n of assessment – if necessary
Qualities of Clinical Teaching
Clinical Teaching Requires Flexibility and Continual Decision Making
Basal reader = sequential and interrelated set of books and supportive material intended ot provide basic
material for dvlpmt of fundamental reading skills predominantly used by classrooms,
minimizing teacher’s need to make decisions
Clinical teachers should not rely solely on reading textbook to meet needs of indvdl student
Clinical Teaching Focuses on the Needs of a Unique Student Rather Than a Large Group of Students
Best method for teaching class may not be best method for teaching indvdl students w/ unique beh’s and
learning needs
Clinical Teaching Can Be Accomplished in a Variety of Settings
What is important is teacher’s ability to integrate feedback info and be ready to make decisions
Teachers should be sensitive to indvdl student’s learning style, interests, shortcomings, strengths, levels of
dvlpmt, and personal feelings
Levine (2002): one of the biggest mistakes we make in teaching is to treat everyone equally when it comes
to learning
Differentiated instruction reflects philosophy of teaching tht enables teachers to reach unique needs of each
student, capitalizing on their s&w
Multiple intelligences = view of learning tht reflects theory tht ppl possess diff kinds of intelligences not
rep’d in school curriculum
Howard Gardner suggests at least 8 diff types of intelligence:
i.) verbal/linguistic
ii.) logical/mathematical
iii.) visual/spatial
iv.) musical/rhythmic
v.) bodily/kinaesthetic
vi.) interpersonal
vii.) intrapersonal
viii.) naturalistic
No magical formula for teaching a child
4 approaches to differentiated instruction: 1.) psychological processing
2.) cognitive strategies for learning
3.) direct instruction and mastery learning
4.) psychotherapeutic teaching
Psychological Processing
Diff ways tht children process info w/in brain as they learn
Differentiated instruction offers way to consider how child’s mental processes of perception, memory, and
attention affect learning
- perceptual processes include visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic learning
Cognitive Strategies for Learning
Thinking processes tht learners use to perform academic tasks and to direct own learning
Involve higher order thinking skills
i.e. problem solving, organizing, self-monitoring, self-q’n’g, monitoring and self-checking, rule learning
SWD tend to process info diff’ly, using inefficient route to access and direct info (TF) taught strategies
Direct Instruction and Mastery learning
Method of teaching academic skills of curriculum in structured and ctrl’d manner
Curriculum & tasks student is to learn first analyzed, then desired academic curriculum skill carefully
sequenced so tht teacher teaches each step in sequence
Student practices and repeats each step until skill mastered
Other characteristics include: - sets goals clear to students
- allocates sufficient time for instruction
- uses cont’ous monitoring of student performance
- provides immediate feedback to students
Mastery learning = outcome of direct instruction
Psychotherapeutic Teaching
Concentrates on student’s feelings and rel’nshp w/ teacher
Goal: rebuild self-concept, foster hope and assurance, and to let student know tht teacher understands
problem and has confidence in student’s ability to learn and succeed
However, exclusive concentration on psychodynamic approach w/o teaching student needed skills may
result in creation of happy failurestudents who have learned to be content w/ academic failure
Home env’/genetic makeup of student may be key elements contributing learning problem, but such
variables cannot be mod’d by teacher
Variables tht can be readjusted by teachers:
- difficulty level
- space
- time
- lang
- interpersonal rel’nshp btwn
student and teacher
Difficulty Level
Readiness = state of maturational dvlpmt necessary before skill can be learned
Zone of proximal development (ZPD) = envisions range of difficulty levels for a student, w/ ZPD at
midpoint of student’s capacity and appropriate level for student’s
learning; Lev Vygotsky
Many skills must be internalized/become AT before they can be used quickly/transferred to new situations
Phys setting helpful to learning
Goal of space ctrl: slowly i amnt of space w/ which student must contend
- gradually, students must internalize their own ctrls so tht they can get along in unmod’d space env’
Numerous ways to ctrl time in teaching setting
i.e. one row of math problems can be assigned instead of entire page
i.e. in timed exercises, allotted time can be i’d
Goal: gradually i time student works on task
To ensure lang clarifies rather than confuses, teachers should examine wording of their directions
Using visual support (i.e. a chart) can be helpful in understanding lang
Tm’s to simplify lang include: 1.) reducing directions to ―telegraphic speechor using essential words
2.) maintaining visual contact w/ learner
3.) avoiding ambiguous words and emphasizing meaning w/ gesture
4.) speaking in slow tempo
5.) touching student before talking
6.) avoiding complex sentence structure, particularly ve constructions
The Interpersonal Relationship
Aka rapport btwn student & teacher, based on tot acceptance of student as human being worthy of respect
Important to recognize impact of failure on student
Important responsibility for clinical teacher is to motivate students who have been failing, to build their
self-concept and self-esteem, and to interest them in learning
Good rel’nshp btwn teacher and student essential first step
Healthy rel’nshp implies compassion w/o over-involvement, understanding w/o indulgence, and genuine
concern for student’s dvlpmt
Shared Responsibility
Involvement of both student and teacher, such as in analysis of problems, eval’n of performance, designing
lessons, and choosing materials
Structure and routine intro’ order into chaotic lives of SWD
Students skilful in detecting insincerity, and will soon detect dishonesty if teacher tells them they are doing
well when they know otherwise
Instead, teacher might try to minimize anxiety abt errors by saying tht many students have ~ difficulties and
by conveying confidence tht together they will finds ways to overcome difficulties
SE cannot be injected/taught; is result of many success exp’s
Lessons must be designed and materials selected to permit students to exp’ success
Teachers can also: - praise good work
- use extrinsic rewards as reinforcement
- dvlp’g visual records of progress t/ charts and graphs
Chance of successful achievement i↑’s when teacher provides materials based on student’s sp’ interests
- stronger motivation to learn
Bibliotherapy = dramatic change tht occurs in student’s attitude and outlook b/c of book read