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Chapter 8

PSYCH312 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Phonics, Phonological Awareness, Lifesize


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH312
Professor
Ernie Mac Kinnon
Chapter
8

Page:
of 7
[ CHAPTER EIGHT ] YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE EARLY YEARS
Parents and families need to actively promote learning during preschool yrs
- otherwise, when child start school already behind peers, may never be able to catch up, keep up, or to
take adv of all efforts schools make to help them
Benefits of Early Intervention
EC sp’ edu programs designed to:
1.) identify young children (birth–age 5) w/ sp’ needs and are likely to encounter difficulty in school
2.) provide early intervention programming
Beneficial for CWD, for families of CWD, and for society
Enhances intelligence
Promotes substantial gains in all dvlpmtal areas (phys, cog, lang, psychosocial, self-help)
Inhibits/prevents 2ndary disabilities
Reduces family stress
Reduces (d)’cy and institutionalization
Saves nation and society substantial health care costs and edu costs
Considerations of Cultural Diversity for Young Children
TABLE 8.1
Percentage of
Preschool Children
With Disabilities
Receiving Services
by Race/Ethnicity
Race/Ethnicity
Percentage
American Indian/Alaskan Native
0.44
Asian/Pacific Islander
7.33
Black (non-Hispanic)
12.93
Hispanic
15.25
White (non-Hispanic)
64.06
Children At-Risk
Have factors tht lead to poor general dvlpmt and learning failure
May not be eligible under law for sp’ services, but are at high risk for becoming CWD unless early
intervention services provided
Factors: poverty, disrupted families, abusive parents, prenatal substance exposure, exposure to
alcohol/tobacco/nicotine, illegal drug use
Research: - shows when early intervention & work w/ families made available, CA-R dramatically improve
- env’ affects # of brain cells, connections among brain cells, and way brain cells wired
- brain dvlpmt before age 1 more rapid and extensive than previous realized
- influence of early env’ on brain dvlpmt is long lasting
- early stress has ve impact on brain f’n
STRATEGIES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN IN GENERAL EDUCATION
ECGE teachers and sp’ edu teachers should collaborate in planning curriculum for all preschoolers
Young children w/ and w/o sp’ needs should share common curriculum
Adaptations needed for young children w/ diverse learning styles and abilities
Both child-initiated activities and teacher-initiated activities should be used
Play exp’s should foster active engagement and interaction of all children
Activities should be appropriate for each child’s stage of dvlpmt
Activities should nourish soc rel’nshps for all children
Activities should promote comm’n among children
Cultural and linguistic diversity of all children should be considered
THE LAW AND YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DISABILITES
IDEA-2004 req’s services be provided for 2 diff age groups: (1) preschoolers; and (2) infants and toddlers
TABLE 8.2
Comparison of
Legislation for
Preschoolers
and for Infants
and Toddlers
Preschoolers
Infants and Toddlers
Age
Ages 3 5
Birth to age 3
Eligibility
Either category of disability
or dvlpmtal delay
Dvlpmtal delay
Plan
IFSP or IEP
IFSP (indvdl family service
plan)
Law
Part B of law, mandatory
Part C of law, permissive
Lead agency
State edu agency
Agency appointed by
governor
Transition
To regular class or sp’ edu
class
To program for preschool
sp’ edu or to regular
preschool w/ sp’ edu support
Primary orientation
Child and dvlpmtal learning
Family and family-infant
interaction
Personnel
EC sp’ edu teacher
Service coordinator
Number of Preschool Children Receiving Special Education Services
i’g
TABLE 8.3
Breakdown by Age
of Preschool-Age
Children
Age
3
4
5
most frequently identified problems for children ages 3-5 from greatest to least are:
1.) speech/lang impairment
2.) dvlpmtal delay
3.) MR
4.) autism
5.) LD
6.) other health impairment
7.) other (includes emo’al disturbance, multiple disabilities, hearing/orthopaedic/visual impairment,
deaf-blindness, traumatic brain injury)
Educational Environments
Edu’al setting for young CWD
Generally EC classes 36%
EC sp’ edu classes 32%
Split general EC classes and EC sp’ edu’ classes – 15%
Residential facility 0.09%
Separate school 3%
Itinerant services outside home 10%
Home instruction 3%
Reverse mainstreaming 1%
DEVELOPMENTAL INDICATORS OF PROBLEMS IN YOUNG CHILDREN
Early signs of problems in young children
i.e. often, child will excel in some areas of dvlpmt, while displaying significant lags/difficulty in others
Early warning signs in preschool children:
- late talking, compared w/ other children
- pronunciation problems
- slow vocab growth, often unable to find right word
- difficulty rhyming words
- trouble learning #s, alphabet, days of week
- extremely restless and easily distracted
- trouble interacting w/ peers
- poor ability to follow directions
Dvlpmtal indictaors:
- gross-motor skillsappear clumsy in walking, jumping, hopping, running, skipping, catching skills
- fine-motor skillsslow in learning to dress themselves, eating skills, using buttons and zippers, using
pencils and crayons, difficulty doing puzzles, using scissors in cutting activities,
slow laborious handwriting
- auditory processingcan hear, but have difficulty in processing what they hear
- visual processingproblems in visual discrimination of letters and words, visual memory
- communication and lang skills—difficulty listening, responding to instructions, initiating comm’ns,
explaining, engaging in convos, and comm’g w/ others
- problems w/ attention—beh’s of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING
Recurring theme t/o hist of sp’ edu is concern for motor dvlpmt
DSM-IV classifies severe problems in motor skills as developmental coordination disorder (DCD)
1.) delays in dvlpmtal milestones
2.) dropping things
3.) clumsiness
4.) poor performance in sports
5.) poor handwriting
IEP can designate use of related services, such as adapted phys edu or OTs
The Importance of Motor Development
Cornerstone of child dvlpmt
Intervention strategies include methods for building motor skills, spatial awareness, and motor planning
Can help child become happier, more confident, more available for learning and also foster soc interactions
When motor curriculum req`s child to go t/, under, over, btwn, and around obstacles, also learning
important cog and lang skills
Perceptual Motor Development
t/ PMD, child integrates motor beh’s and perception (visual, auditory, tactile, and kinaesthetic perception)
Children who have normal perceptual motor dvlpmt establish solid and reliable concept of world, a stable
perceptual motor world, by the time they encounter academic tasks at age 6
In contrast, children w/ difficulty w/ PMD must content w/ perceptual motor world tht is unstable and
unreliable
Sensory Integration
OTs trained in rel’nshp btwn brain physiology and f’n (TF) use SI therapy w/ children who have Ds in
several sensory SI f’ns, which interfere w/ awareness of their body and body mvmts
3 systems involved in SI: (1) tactile system; (2) vestibular system; and (3) proprioceptive system
Tactile System
Involves sense of touch and stimulation of skin surfaces
Tactile defensiveness = exp’ discomfort when touched by another person
Methods of SI used by OTs: touching and rubbing skin surfaces, using lotions, brushing skin surfaces