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Chapter 9

PSYCH312 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Takers, Rehabilitation Act Of 1973, Optometry


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH312
Professor
Ernie Mac Kinnon
Chapter
9

Page:
of 5
[ CHAPTER NINE ] ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
AND RELATED MILD DISABILITIES
ADOLESCENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES AND RELATED MILD DISABILITIES
Characteristics of Adolescence
Marked by conf’g feelings abt:
1.) freedom and (i) vs. security and (d)
2.) rapid phys changes
- must dvlp new self-image and learn to cope w/ diff phys appearance + new psych/bio drives
3.) dvlp’g sexuality
4.) peer pressure
- when values of friends differ from those of parents, family confrontation & conf’ may result
5.) self-consciousness
- can lead to feelings of inferiority and w/drawal
Characteristics of Adolescents With Learning Disabilities
Cultural and linguistic diversity:
- some families will not acknowledge any failure/disability and refuse to seek help
- some expected to take on many family responsibilities (TF) have less time for schoolwork
- testing demands particularly challenging for ELL students
Passive learning:
- in response to many failure-producing exp’s, dvlp attitude of learned helplessness
- instead of trying to solve a problem, passive learners tend to wait until teacher directs them and tells
them what to do
Poor self-concept:
- aar of years of failure and frustration
- often, emotional problems dvlp from lack of successful exp’s
Social and beh’al problems:
- characteristics of social ineptitude lead to difficulty making and keeping friends
Attentional difficulties:
- given longer periods of concentration needed for studying and listening in class, difficulty w/ attention
can seriously impede progress
Lack of motivation:
- by 2ndary school, many have exp’d failure and begin to doubt intellectual abilities
- leads to low persistence level
- attribution theory suggests even when they do have successes, they dN believe they were responsible
- (TF), even success dN bring much satisfaction or raise confidence level
SPECIAL ISSUES AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL (MIDDLE SCHOOL AND HIGH SCHOOL)
Challenges for Adolescents With Learning Disabilities and Related Mild Disabilities
Severe deficits in basic academic skills (i.e. reading, spelling, math)
Generalized failure and below-avg performance in content-area courses (i.e. sci, soc studies, health)
Deficient work-related skills (i.e. listening well in class, taking notes, studying for & taking tests)
Passive academic involvement and pervasive lack of motivation
Inadequate interpersonal skills
Difficulty w/ executive f’n and self-determination
Educational Settings in Middle School and High School
Inclusion mvmt growing
Inclusion at the Secondary Level
Face several obstacles in providing inclusion programs, including:
1. Complex content-area curriculum
2. Large gap btwn student skill levels and classroom demands
3. Content-area 2ndary school teachers not trained to meet needs of SWLD
4. Standards-based, high-stakes testing mvmt
Effective Inclusion Practices for Secondary Teachers
Necessary to establish partnerships btwn content-area teachersHS teachers tht specialize in content
area—and sp’ edu teachers
Performance Standards and High-Stakes Testing
Performance standards = standards tht all students are expected to meet
High-stakes testing = state-wide assessment tests; many critical decisions based on test results
IDEA-2004 outlines several req’mts for including SWD in state-wide/district-wide assessments:
- IEP must include plan tht details how student will be assessed and what accommodations are needed
Goal for standards-based testing: desire to improve teaching and learning so tht all students can
demonstrate mastery of knowledge and skills needed to participate in
global economy of today & future
Assessment only part of picture; most critical piece is providing all students w/ chance to learn
Content-Area Secondary Teachers
Many not prepared to work w/ SWD, (TF) important sp’ educators work w/ them to help dvlp sensitivity to
needs of SWD and to provide subject-matter teachers w/ strategies for teaching those students
TRANSITION LEGISLATION FOR SECONDARY STUDENTS
Transition = change in status from behaving 1ly as student to assuming emerging adult roles
Research shows tht adolescents receive inadequate transition planning
- need training in self-advocacy b/c they are expected to take i↑’ly more responsibility for own decisions
and lives
IDEA-2004 req’s:
1. Appropriate measurable postsecondary goals based upon age-appropriate transition assessments
related to training, edu, employment, and, where appropriate, living skills
2. Transition services (including courses of study) needed to assist student in reaching those goals; and
3. Beginning not later than 1yr before student reaches age of majority under state law, statement tht
student has been informed of student’s rights under this title, if any, tht will transfer to student on
reaching age of majority
Law req’s individualized transition plan (ITP) be written for SWD, beginning at age 16, as part of IEP
Content of the Transition Plan
1. Current levels of performance
2. Interests and aptitude
3. Post-school goals
4. Transition activities
5. Designate responsible persons (responsible for cont’n of transition after student’s HS yrs)
6. Review (and revised as necessary)
Developing Transition Plans
Goals:
Competitive employment: - vocational educators need to be integral part of transition team to help identify
areas of interest, explore occupations and to gain at least basic knowledge
w/in various fields
Vocational training and apprenticeship programs
Post-secondary and college attendance: - meeting this goal req’s carefully laid out transition plans tht
include significant encouragement toward college
Supported employment: - bridge from school to work
- transition educators seek potential employers to hire sp’ edu students
- in some cases, job coach works at employment site, supervising and helping
student over inevitable rough spots
APPROACHES TO TEACHING ADOLESCENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES AND RELATED
MILD DISABILITIES
Features of Effective Secondary Programs
Intensive instruction in reading and mathematics
Instruction in survival skills, including: 1.) strategies to help students stay out of trouble in school
2.) skills to help students acq beh’al patterns tht will make
teachers consider them in +ve light
3.) study and test-taking skills
Curriculum Models for Serving Adolescents With Learning Disabilities and Mild Disabilities at the
Secondary Level
Basic academic skills instruction:
- focus on improving student’s abilities t/ direct teaching, especially in reading & math
- receive instruction at level tht approximates their achievement/instructional level
Tutorial programs:
- help students in their specific academic-content subjects and to achieve success in regular curriculum
Functional skills or survival skills instruction:
- equip students to f’n in society
i.e. consumer info, completion of application forms, banking and money skills, life-care skills
- academic content geared to students’ careers and life needs
i.e. reading directed toward relevant areas, such as directions or driver’s instruction manual
Work-study programs:
- provide job- and career-related skills and on-the-job exp’
- particularly successful for students not motivated by HS env’
Assistive and Instructional Computer Technology
Students who have difficulty w/ reading, writing, and spelling often excel w/ computer applications
What Happens to High School Students With Learning Disabilities?
US Dept of Edu (2006) reports data on why HS SWLD leave school:
- 57% graduate w/ diploma
- 7% receive certificate
- 6% moved or reason not known
- 20% drop out of school
US Dept of Edu (2002) notes there are several diff types of diplomas/certificates:
1. Standard diplomastudents must meet same criteria as all GE students, including adequate
performance on tests
2. Standard diploma with multiple criteria for earning the diplomastudents can earn diploma by
meeting diff criteria, such as completing IEP goals
3. Certificate of attendance, completion, or achievementstudents w/ IEPs may be allowed to meet
criteria in diff ways
4. Sp’ edu certificate—available only to students w/ IEPs