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Chapter 11

PSYCH312 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Babbling, Language Processing In The Brain, Speech Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH312
Professor
Ernie Mac Kinnon
Chapter
11

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[ CHAPTER ELEVEN ] SPOKEN LANGUAGE DIFFICULTIES: LISTENING AND
SPEAKING
THEORIES
SPOKEN LANGUAGE, READING, AND WRITING: AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM
When child exhibits lang difficulty in one form, underlying lang deficit often reappears in other forms
i.e. lang delay at age 5, reading D at age 8 and writing D at age 14
By becoming familiar w/ sounds of lang (t/ early exp’s of stories, songs, and rhymes), children dvlp lang
base for reading
Forms of the Language System
Acquisition of lang skills follows general sequence of dvlpmt: (1) listening, (2) speaking, (3) reading, and
(4) writing
Primary language system oral skills of listening and speaking (since dvlp’d 1st)
Secondary language system reading and writing
Input/Receptive skills feed info into CNS; listening and reading
Output/Expressive skills ideas originate in brain and are sent outward; speaking and writing
Students should not be assigned to produce output (i.e. oral report) before they have been exposed to
adequate input exp’s (i.e. discussions, graphic organizers, reading)
Language as a Communication Process
Consists of sending a msgexpressive languageand receiving a msgreceptive language
Understanding comm’n process helps teachers deal w/ comm’n problems of students w/ lang disabilities
TEACHING LANGUAGE IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM
Encourage students to use spoken lang during class session: - find areas of interest students want to talk abt
- students can explain activity to classmates
Teach vocab related to area of study
Provide good lang models
Use role playing and acting out of stories
HOW DO CHILDREN ACQUIRE LANGAUGE?
Imitation and reinforcement
Innate factors: implies tht child’s lang will naturally dvlp & flourish if child given stimulating lang env
Social factors
COMPONENTS OF THE LANGUAGE SYSTEM
Phonology
Speech sounds in a lang
Phoneme smallest unit of sound in lang sys
i.e. word cat contains 3 phonemes: k-a-t
Phonics recognition, analysis, and synthesis of phoneme elements in written words
Morphology
Meaning units in lang
Morpheme smallest unit of meaning
Children unaware of exceptions to morphemic rule may over-generalize
i.e. past of fight and go as fighted and goed

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Syntax
Grammar sys of lang; way words are strung together to form sentences
Active form of sentence—―Mother bakes cookies‖—is easier to comprehend than passive form—―The
cookies are baked by mother‖
Semantics
Vocab sys or word meanings in lang
Student w/ semantic may understand concept but may not possess appropriate word to express it
i.e. when referring to twins: “two girls with the same face”
Pragmatics
Soc side of lang; how speaker uses lang in their env
Intonation sound patterns of spoken lang, including pitch (melody), stress (accent), and juncture (pauses)
TYPES OF LANGUAGE PROBLEMS
Language Disorders vs. Speech Disorders
Speech disorders abnormalities of producing sounds (i.e. articulation/fluency difficulties or voice Ds)
Language disorders encompass entire spectrum of comm’n
Delayed Speech
May not speak at all, or may use very little lang at age when lang normally dvlps
Otitis media infection of middle ear tht can cause temporary hearing loss
- even if hearing loss is temporary and mild, can lead to lang delay if it occurs at stage critical to lang
learning in young children
Phonological Awareness
Child’s ability to focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken words
Successful beginning readers must be aware of phoneme sounds w/in words to appreciate words ―cat‖ and
―bat‖ differ in sgl phoneme sound
Can be taught and helped in reading
Effective in kindergarten and first grade; also helps older students, all SES groups, and bilingual students
Can be successfully taught by many diff method
Usually used for avg instructional session of 25min
Can be taught by classroom teachers used along w/ printed letters
Temporal Acoustical Processing
Speech sounds come in too fast for children to recognize and decipher
Fast ForWord computer program alters acoustics of speech, drawing out sounds and then speeding them
up, by stretching out certain sounds and emphasizing rapidly changing speech components
by making them slower & louder
Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) and Word Finding
Children w/ these difficulties cannot quickly & AT’ly name objects and are slow at recalling correct words
Language Disorders
Acquired aphasia adults who lose ability to speak b/c of brain damage from stroke/disease/accident
Developmental aphasia children who have severe difficulty in acq’g oral lang
Receptive language disorders difficulty in understanding lang
i.e. may be able to understand sgl words but difficulty understanding a sentence using those words
Expressive language disorders difficulty in producing spoken lang
can understand speech and lang produced by others, dN have muscular
paralysis tht prevents them from talking, and do well on nonverbal tasks
Dysnomia word-finding problem or deficiency in remembering & expressing words
i.e. may substitute word (such as “thing”) for every object they cannot remember
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