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Chapter 12

PSYCH312 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Fix-Up, Computer Program, Master Sergeant


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH312
Professor
Ernie Mac Kinnon
Chapter
12

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[ CHAPTER TWELVE ] READING DIFFICULTIES
THEORIES
THE CONSEQUENCES OF READING DISABILITIES
w/o ability to read, opportunities for academic and occupational success are limited
- also rises to level of mj public hlth problem
80% SWLD and RMD encounter reading disabilities
Critical to identify early
- 74% of children unsuccessful in reading in 3rd grade still unsuccessful in 9th grade
Wait-and-fail method policy of not promptly addressing reading difficulties of young children but,
instead, waiting to do so when they are older
Char’s of children at most risk:
- lack phonemic awareness (or sensitivity to sounds of lang)
- not familiar w/ letters of alphabet
- may not understand purpose of print
- often lack sufficient oral lang and verbal skills and have meagre vocabs
Efficient reading is key skill for maintaining employment or retraining for another job
Children must first learn to read so that they may later read to learn
READING STRATEGIES FOR THE GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM
General mod’s: - i amnt of repetition and review
- allot more time for completing work
- provide more examples and activities
- introduce work more slowly
Phonics: - play word & rhyming games
- analyze phoneme elements tht make up a word
- build word families
Fluency: - help students recognize sight words
- find opportunities for students to reread passages aloud
- use predictable books
- use read-along methods
- use lang exp’ method to let children read own lang
Vocabulary: - teach content vocab before reading ch. in sci/soc studies text
- find words in student’s areas of interest and use these words for study
- use word webs to study vocab words
Reading comprehension: - provide students w/ bg knowledge abt story/content-area reading
- have students predict what will happen next in story
- use graphic organizers to visualize reading passage
- show movies/videos abt book to enhance interest
- have students act out passages in a story
DYSLEXIA
Difficult to recognize letters and words and to interpret info presented in print form
May still be intelligent and have strong math/spatial skills, and/or excel in other facets of life
Has biological basis and caused by disruption in neural circuits in brain
Problems persist into adolescence and adulthood
Has perceptual, cognitive, and lang dimensions
Leads to difficulties in many areas of life as indvdl matures

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Ppl w/ dyslexia tend to find ingenious ways to hide their disability
ELEMENTS OF READING
Conclusions of National Reading Panel included a list of key reading components:
1.) phonemic awareness
2.) phonics
3.) fluency
4.) vocabulary
5.) text comprehension
PHONEMIC AWARENESS
Ability to notice, think abt, and work wé indvdl sounds in spoken words
Phonological awareness ability to identify & manipulate larger parts of spoken lang (i.e. words, rhymes)
as well as phonemes
PHONICS AND WORD-RECOGNITION SKILLS
Word recognition meaning of text
Learning word-recognition skills early leads to wider reading abilities in school and out of school
Word-recognition procedures: (1) phonics, (2) sight words, (3) context clues, and (4) structural analysis
Phonics
Rel’nshp btwn printed letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes) in lang
Involves learning correspondence of lang sounds to written letters and applying tht knowledge in
recognizing words and reading
Breaking the code decode printed lang & translate into sounds t/ symbol-sound rel’nsp
Need direct instruction in phonics and decoding tht makes rel’nshp btwn printed letters and sounds explicit
Explicit code-emphasis instruction helps children dvlp basis for remembering rel’nshp o sounds to
printed letters and for deriving meaning of printed words
Systematic phonics instruction is: - beneficial to students regardless of SES
- effective when delivered t/ tutoring, small groups, or classes
Teacher Knowledge About Phonics
Some teachers dN remember learning phonics themselves, and many dN receive adequate phonics
instruction during teacher training
Types of Phonics Approaches
Synthetic phonics teaching students explicitly to convert letters into sounds (or phonemes) and then blend
sounds to form recognizable words
i.e. take word stop. Break into sounds: s/t/o/p. Then blend sounds into the word.
Analytic phonics teaching students to analyze letter-sound rel’ns in previously learned words to avoid
pronouncing sounds in isolation
i.e. analyze sounds in whole word making
Analogy phonics recognizing tht rhyme segment of unfamiliar word is identical to tht of familiar word
i.e. known word kick; new word brick. Known word sing; new word ring.
Embedded phonics teaching students phonics skills by embedding phonics instruction in text reading;
more implicit approach tht relies on incidental learning
i.e. instruction in phonics skills is incidental and taught during reading of a text
Phonics t/ spelling teaching students phonics t/ spelling instruction & to segment words into phonemes
i.e. students are instructed to spell words phonemically

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Sight Words
Words tht are recognized instantly, w/o hesitation or further analysis
Problems caused by undependable written form of English can be approached in two ways:
1.) Introduce only small # of words at a time, selecting words on basis of frequency of use
2.) Simplify the initial learning phase by selecting only words tht have a consistent sound-symbol
spelling rel’nshp
Context Clues
Help student recognize word t/ meaning/context of sentence/paragraph in which word appears
Instruction best done by actual reading
Structural Analysis
Recognition of words t/ analysis of meaningful word units such as prefixes, suffixes, root words, cmpd
words, and syllables
These clues, combined w/ context of sentence, may be sufficient for recognizing word
FLUENCY
Ability to read connected text rapidly, effortlessly, and AT’ly
Must dvlp fluency to make bridge from word recognition to reading comprehension
Building a Sight Vocabulary
Fluent reading req’s tht most of the words in a selection be recognized as sight words
- when selection contains too many difficult (non-sight) words, the reading material will be too arduous
and frustrating for the reader
Automaticity
Fast, accurate, and effortless word identification at single word level
Recognizing Syllables
Pwrful tool to dvlp AT word recognition is to teach students visual patterns in six syllables types:
- closed: closed w/ a consonant, vowel makes its short sound (i.e. pot)
- open: ends in a vowel, vowel makes its long sound (i.e. go)
- silent e: ends in vowel consonant e, vowel makes it long sound (i.e. cake)
- vowel combination: two vowels together make a sound (i.e. coat)
- controlled r: contain a vowel plus r, vowel sound is changed (i.e. card)
- consonant + le: at the end of a word (i.e. ta/ble)
Repeated Reading
Instructional strategy in which students read passage aloud several times
Improves fluency, comprehension, and overall reading achievement
Other Methods to Improve Reading Fluency
i. Read-along method: teacher and one student read passage together orally
ii. Paired reading: two students read in pairs, alt’g pages; provides extensive reading practice for both students
iii. Echo reading: 1st, teacher models oral reading passage, and then student asked to imitate teacher’s reading
iv. Reading aloud to other audience: children can read aloud to willing listeners (i.e. family and even pets)
VOCABULARY
Occupies central position in learning to read
Vocab knowledge req’s reader to not only know word, but also to apply it appropriately in context
Knowing diffs btwn oral vocab and reading vocab
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