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Chapter 13

PSYCH312 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Motor Coordination, Word Family, Microsoft Powerpoint

Course Code
Ernie Mac Kinnon

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Writing is most sophisticated and complex achievement of lang sys
The Writing Connection in the Integrated Language System
Writing is an active process: - must actively work at producing sth tht dNe before by using own bg
knowledge and integrating their lang skills
- process of revising req’s rethinking and reconstruction
- when writing, hover half of writing time is devoted to reading
Early Literacy and Writing
Early literacy young child’s early entrance into world of words, lang, and stories
Concept of early literacy emphasizes interrelatedness of various forms of lang in child’s dvlpmt
Philosophy of early literacy instruction suggests writing may be easier than reading and may actually dvlp
earlier than reading
- writing is more self-involving
- reading req’s reader to be able to interpret another’s ideas and use of lang
Writing helps children understand tht, in English, print progresses from left to right
Young children encouraged to explore and play w/ writing
- invented spellingfollow own spelling rules
Early writing i↑’s child’s awareness of phonological properties of lang
The Writing Process
Traditional writing product approach emphasized written assignment created by writer
- teacher’s checking and grading of written product based on certain expectations of perfection
Writing process approach focuses on entire process tht writers use in dvlp’g written document
Emphasizes thinking tht goes on during writing
- thus, teachers encouraged to understand complexity of writing process as they help students think abt,
select, and organize tasks
Stage 1 (Prewriting): - gather ideas and refines them before beginning formal writing
- identifies intended audience
Stage 2 (Drafting): - records ideas on paper
- written for writer and not reader
- at this stage, may be overflow of ideas, w/ little org’n/consideration of prose,
grammar and spelling
Stage 3 (Revising): refines draft version by revising and editing
Stage 4 (Sharing with an audience): - provides opportunity to receive feedback
- can be shared as: publication, presentation, puppet show
Principles for Teaching the Writing Process
1. During prewriting stage, writing process req’s much time, input and attention
2. Drafting stage frees students from undue concentration on mechanics of writing
3. Revising stage helps students edit their work
4. Avoid excessive corrections of students’ written work
- when students receive ve reinforcements, they soon learn to beat the game (limit writing vocab to
words they know how to spell, keep sentences simple, and avoid complex and creative ideas)
The Learning Strategy Approach to Writing
Self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) explicit, structured approach to teaching writing

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Goals of SRSD: 1.) help students dvlp knowledge of writing and strategies involved in writing process
2.) support students in ongoing dvlpmt of abilities needed to monitor & manage writing
3.) promote students’ dvlpmt of +ve attitudes abt writing and themselves as writers
Stage 1: dvlp bg knowledge
Stage 2: discuss it
Stage 3: model it
Stage 4: memorize it
Stage 5: support it
Stage 6: (i) performance
Strategies for Writing
Personal Journals
Teachers should be careful not to correct grammatical/spelling errors b/c this practice undermines student’s
confidence and may d↓ amnt of writing
Written Conversations
Btwn teacher and student or btwn 2 students
Patterned Writing
Students use favourite predictable book w/ patterned writing and write own v.
i.e. Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See?
Graphic Organizers
Visual displays tht organize and structure ideas and concepts
i.e. Venn diagram
Drawing Pictures
Visual areas of learning often area of strength and should be encouraged
Computers and Word Processing
Students can write w/o worrying abt handwriting and can revise w/o making mess of written document
Electronic Keyboards
Files stored on a disk, which can be transferred to PC/Mac
Can print by connecting to any printer
i.e. Alphasmart, Dana, Nero
Advantages of Word Processing
Ease of revision
Help w/ fine-motor problems; to use word processor, students must learn typing/keyboarding skills
Sp’ f/s
Word-Prediction Programs
Work together w/ word processor to predict word user wants to enter into computer
When user types first 1 or 2 letters, word-prediction software offers list of words beginning w/ tht letter
Can also predict next word in sentence even before letters of next word are entered
Voice-Recognition Systems
Dictation programs tht allow person to operate computer by speaking to it
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