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Chapter 1-13

PSYCH312 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-13: Anxiety And Depression Association Of America, Attention, Intellectual Disability


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH312
Professor
Dr.Mckinnon
Chapter
1-13

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CHAPTER 1: LEARNING DISABILITIES AND
RELATED MILD DISABILITIES:
CHARACTERISTICS AND CURRENT
DIRECTIONS
What are Mild Disabilities?
Includes students from several different categories of special education
Learning disabilities and related mild disabilities are conditions that impede learning
Those with mild disabilities often taught together since they require similar instructional
methods
Composition of mild disabilities:
Mental retardation/intellectual and developmental disabilities
Emotional/behavioral disorders
Learning disabilities
Other disabilities
Different levels of disability within each category ^ ie. Mild, moderate, or severe learning
disability
Mild disability shouldn’t be seen as “not serious”. Negatively affects learning/self-
esteem
Common learning/behavioral characteristics of students with mild disabilities
Reading difficulties  problems to decode words, basic word-recognition
skills/reading comprehension
Poor social skills  doesn’t know how to talk/act in social situations, hard to
establish satisfying relationships
Poor motor abilities  exhibits general awkwardness and clumsiness
Psychological processing differences  difficulty interpreting visual or auditory
stimuli
Mental Retardation/Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Mental Retardation: used in special education law. Term seen as stigmatizing 
changed to intellectual and developmental disabilities
2 essential parts: limitations in intelligence, and limitations in [conceptual, social,
practical] adaptive behavior … manifested during developmental period before
18yo
oadaptive behavior: practical skills ie. Self care, independence, social
skills
those with mild mental retardation can learn academic skills but slow learning rate
+ need support

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when mental retardation is based on IQ scores: mild, moderate, severe, profound
American Association of Mental Retardation identified 4 levels of retardation based on level
of support needed:
1. Intermittent Support: support provided whenever needed. Aka mild mental
retardation
2. Limited Support: support provided on regular basis for short duration aka
moderate mental retardation
3. Extensive Support: support provided is ongoing and regular. Aka severe
4. Pervasive Support: support is constant, high intensity across environments
with many staff members aka profound
Most students with mental retardation (87%) are in programs for their mild disability
41% with mental retardation are in general education classes
24% are in resource rooms for part of day
8% of all students with disabilities are in mental retardation category
Emotional/Behavioral Disorders
interferes with learning and pose challenge against teachers + others
behavioral and emotional challenges often overlap/are interrelated ie. Feelings of sadness
lead to acts of self exclusion
students w/ emotional/behavioral disorders are included in programs for mild disabilities
Emotional Disorders: feelings about self. Ie. Chronically sad student which
negatively impacts ability to learn
8% of all students with disabilities identified under emotional disturbance.
Considered as mild disabilities.
Emotional disturbance as defined by law:
oInability to learn that’s not caused by intellectual, sensory, or health factors
oInability to build/maintain interpersonal relationships in school
oInappropriate behaviors/feelings in normal situations
oGeneral persistent mood of unhappiness/depression
oDevelop physical symptoms/fears associated with personal/school
problems
Behavioral Disorders: overt problems ie. Aggression or antisocial behavior.
Learning Disabilities
Neurological condition interfering with one’s ability to store, process, produce information
Can affect attention, memory, coordination, social skills, emotional maturity, ability to
read/write/spell/math/reason
46% of students with disabilities identified under learning disabilities category
Other Disabilities
often included in mild disabilities. Depends on state’s requirements and specific programs
in school

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includes categories not mentioned above that special education teachers receive training
on ie. Orthopedic impairments, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments
THE CATEGORY OF LEARNING DISABILITIES: A FIELD IN TRANSITION
Prevalence of Learning Disabilities
recently, decreased students identifying with learning disability
maybe they’re being identified in other disabilities ie ADHD
attention to early childhood education
improvements in reading instructions to general population
using Response-to-Intervention (RTI)
The Federal Definition of Learning Disabilities
formed basis of state definitions used in schools
major concepts in the federal definition:
disorder present in 1 + basic psychological processes ie. Mental abilities like
memory, perception, thinking…
difficulty in learning ie. Speaking, listening, writing, reading, math
problem isn’t primarily caused by other factor ie. Mental retardation, sociocultural
disadvantage, visual/hearing impairments
US Department of Education states child has specific learning disability if:
1. Student doesn’t reach proper age/ability level in specific areas when given proper
learning tools
2. Student has severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual abilities in
1+ areas/7: oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, reading
skills, math
Other Significant Definitions of Learning Disabilities
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD)
Representatives from 14 professional organizations involved w/ learning disabilities
Diverse group of disorders
Significant difficulty in listening, speaking, math, writing, reasoning, reading
Disorders are intrinsic to the individual due to central nervous system dysfunction
Occurs across life span
Often problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, social interaction
May occur simultaneously with other disabilities ie. Mental retardation, but the
learning disability not a result from it
The Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities (ICLD)
Government committee. Representatives from health, human services, education
Includes social skills deficits as characteristic of learning disabilities
COMMON ELEMENTS IN THE DEFINITIONS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
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