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Chapter 9

PSYCH 338 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Transactional Leadership, Job Satisfaction, Contingency Theory

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Doug Brown

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Chapter 9: Leadership
Leadership occurs when particular individuals exert influence on the goal achievement of others in an org. context
o Motivating people and gaining their commitment
Strategic Leadership the ability to anticipate, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work w/ others to initiate
changes that will create a viable future for the org
Trait Theory of Leadership leadership depends on the personal qualities or traits of the leader
Trait individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability, and personality
Trait Associated w/ Leadership Effectiveness:
Energy and drive
Motivation to lead
Emotional stability
Honesty and integrity
Need for achievement
Research on Leadership Traits:
Big Five dimensions of personality are related to leadership
o Extraversion and conscientiousness
The most consistent predictors of leadership effectiveness
Limitations of the Trait Approach:
Failure to take account the situation in which leadership occurs
Bias and discrimination
The Behaviour of Leaders:
Consideration extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for
o Friendly
o Egalitarian
o Expresses appreciation and support
Initiating Structure a leader concentrates on group goal attainment
o Defines and organizes their role
Also, roles of followers
o Stresses standard procedures
o Schedules the work to be done
o Assigns employees to particular tasks
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Consequences of Consideration and Structure:
o strongly related to follower satisfaction (leader and job), motivation and leader effectiveness
Initiating structure
o strongly related to leader job performance and group performance
Leader Reward Behaviour provides employees w/ compliments, tangible benefits and deserved special treatment
Leader Punishment Behaviour involves the use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active
withholding of raises, promotions and other rewards
Situational Theories of Leadership:
situation refers to the setting in which influence attempts occur
setting includes,
o characteristics of the employees
o nature of the task they are performing
o characteristics of the org
Fledler’s Cotige Theor ad Cogitive Resource Theory:
Contingency Theory association b/w leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how
favourable the situation is for exerting influence
o Therefore,
Some situations are more favourable for leadership than others and they require different
orientations on the part of the leader
Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) a current or past co-worker w/ whom a leader has had a difficult time
accomplishing a task
o High LPC,
Can be considered relationship oriented
Can find positive qualities in them even though they are difficult to work with
o Low LPC,
Can be considered task oriented
Low task competence relate to their personal qualities
i.e. if he’s o good at the jo, the he’s ot good, period
o High LPC Leaders,
Motivated to maintain interpersonal relations
o Low LPC Leaders,
Motivated to accomplish the task
“ituatioal faouraleess is the otige part of the otige theor
Situation (most favourable)
o Relationship b/w leader and the group members is good (leader-member relations), high task structure,
there is position power
Situation (least favourable)
o Leader member relations are poor, task is unstructured, leader has weak position power
Cognitive Resource Theory (CRT) fouses o the oditios i hih a leader’s ogitie resoures
(intelligence, expertise and experience) contribute to effective leadership
o Importance of intelligence for leadership effectiveness depends on the directiveness of the leader,
group support for the leader and the stressfulness of the situation
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