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Chapter 1-13

PSYCH354R Chapter 1-13: Psych 354R Online - All Chapter Notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH354R
Professor
Denise Marigold
Chapter
1-13

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Chapter 1: Introduction: What Do We Want to Know about Intimate Relationships?
oInterdependence: the mutual influence that two people have over one another is the defining feature
of any relationship, intimate or otherwise
A key aspect of interdependence is that it exists between two partners in a relationship
Is a necessary condition for intimacy but it is not a sufficient condition for intimacy
To qualify as intimate, a relationship requires something more than interdependence; by itself,
interdependence between two people is not enough to say that their relationship is an
intimate one
oBidirectional: the interdependence that connects them has to operate in both directions
oImpersonal relationships tend to be formal and task oriented
oPersonal relationships that are relatively informal and engage us at a deeper emotional level
othe presence of a close relationship qualifies interdependent and personal relationships further, where
we understand closeness to be reflected b the strength, frequency, and diversity of the influences that
partners have over one another
oAn intimate relationship is one characterized by strong, sustained, mutual influence across a wide
range of interactions, featuring at least the potential for sexual interaction
Different types of relationships
oInterdependent relationship: a relationship in which the behavior of each participant affects the
other. Interdependence is the defining characteristic of any social relationship
oPersonal relationship: an interdependent relationship in which the partners consider each other
special and unique
oClose relationship: a personal relationship in which the partners have strong and frequent
influence on each other across a variety of activities
oIntimate relationship: a close relationship that includes some kind of sexual passion that could
be expressed and shared
oCharles Darwin's theory of evolution reveals that who we are today as a species is a product of
natural selection operating over a vast expanse of time
oRandom changes in genes from one generation to the next sometimes lead to enhanced fitness,
or improvements in the chances that the offspring will survive and reproduce
oPairbond: a relationship between two individuals who have some degree of emotional and/or
practical investment in one another, often with purpose of reproducing
Seven Essential Attributes of Love
oDesire: wanting to be united with the partner, physically and emotionally
oIdealization: Believing the partner is unique and special
oJoy: Experiencing very strong, positive emotions
oPreoccupation: Thinking a lot about the partner and having little control over when these thoughts
occur
oProximity: Taking steps to maintain or restore physical closeness or emotional contact with the
partner
oPrioritizing: Reordering priorities and gaols, so that maintaining the relationship is given more
importance than other interests and responsibilities
oCaring: Experience and expressing feelings of empathy and compassion for the partner
oPassionate love - marked more by infatuation, intense preoccupation with the partner, strong
sexual longing, throes of ecstasy, and feelings of exhilaration that come from being united with
the partner
oCompanionate love: these potent feelings diminish but are enriched by warm feelings of
attachment, an authentic and enduring bond, a sense of mutual commitment, the profound

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knowledge that you are caring for another person who is in turn caring for you, feeling proud of a
mate's accomplishments, and the satisfaction that comes from sharing goals and perspectives
oSubjective well-being: our reports about how happy we are generally in life is linked with various
aspects of our intimate relationships
oRelationship status appears to relate to subjective well-being
oRelationship transitions or the movement into and out of partnerships, area third way that
intimate relationships are linked with subjective well-being
oProtection effects: something about the experience itself produces protective benefits or
advantages
oIntergenerational transmission effects: the observation that people's intimate relationships
tend to resemble those of their parents
oSocial control theory: social relationships organize and regulate how individuals behave, such
that fewer, weaker, or poorer relationships increase the occurrence of deviant behaviour
Chapter 2: Tools for Studying Intimate Relationships
oRelationship science is essentially a set of tools for answering questions of which claims to take
seriously and which to doubt
oScientific method is a set of procedures for making predictions, gathering data, and comparing
the validity of competing claims about the world
Theory: a general explanation for a phenomenon
Hypothesis: a concrete statement about how concepts should be associated in the world
Operationalization: the translation of abstract concepts into concrete terms
Choose a measurement strategy: self reports? Observations?
Design a study: correlation, longitudinal, experimental, archival
Analyze the data and draw conclusions: should the hypothesis be rejected?
Asking and Answering Questions
oThree kinds of questions motivate most research on intimate relationships; corresponds to three
different kinds of research goals
The first kind of question focuses on description and asks: what happens?
Second kind of question focuses on prediction, asking: when does it happen?
Third kind of question focuses on explanation, asking: why does it happen?
Theories and Hypotheses
oTheory: a general explanation of a phenomenon
oA theory is a starting point, directing the researcher toward considering aspects of the world that
might help answer the question at hand
oOne measure of a good theory is that it is falsifiable; that is it suggest testable predictions that
can be confirmed or disconfirmed through systematic observation
oThe specific predictions suggested by a theory are called hypothesis
oA hypothesis arises from the theory and it predicts how different variables are likely to be
associated
Choosing a Measurement Strategy
oSelf-reports are partner's own descriptions and evaluations of their experiences
oPeople vary in their willingness to contemplate sx outside the context of a committed intimate
relationship  sociosexuality
oThe Socialsexual Orientation Inventory, the Marital Locus of Control Scale, and other survey
instruments like them are known as fixed-response scales because the researcher determines
all of the specific questions and possible answers

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oAn alternative approach is the open-ended questions, in which the researchers asks a question
and then the respondent gives any answer that comes to mind
oQualitative research is an approach that relies primarily on open-ended questions and other
loosely structured information
oOmnibus measure is designed to reflect the idea that satisfaction with a relationship is based on
opinions about the relationship as a whole as well as opinions about a range of specific aspects
of the relationship
oThe item-overlap problem occurs whenever questionnaires that are nominally measuring
different constructs contain questions about similar topics
oGlobal measures, measures that ask partners only about their evaluations of their relationship
as a whole
oObservational measures gather data about relationship events without having to ask the people
who are experiencing the events
oSentiment override: the tendency for partners' global feelings about their relationships to color
their perceptions of specific behaviors and experiences in the relationship
oResearchers who use home-based observations hope that couples will act more naturally when
in their own environments, so that the behaviours observed there really do represent what
couples do when they are not being observed
oLaboratory-based observations eliminates any outside factors that may alter couple's behavior
while they are at gone, but it also removes couples from the environment where their behaviours
usually take place
oReliability is the extent to which different observers agree that a specified behavior has or has
not occurred
oReactivity - sometimes the act of observing someone changes the behaviour being observed
oMultiple-method approach, operationalizing the constructs of interest in different ways, so that
the limitations of each measurement strategy may eventually cancel each other out and the
effects the researcher is really interested in can emerge clearly
Designing the Study
oCorrelational research to study the naturally occurring associations among variables
oA positive correlation indicates that when levels of one variable are high, levels of the other
variable tend to be high as well
oA negative correlation indicates the opposite association, where high levels of one variable tend
to be associated with levels of another
oCausation - the idea that one even or circumstance is the direct result of another
Correlation does not imply causation; two variables may be associated but that does not
necessarily mean that one causes the other
X may cause Y, Y may cause X, Both X and Y may be the result of some other cause
oCross-sectional data - the data describe a cross section, or a snapshot, of a single instant
oStudies that collect measurements of the same individuals at two or more occasions are still
correlational, but they provide longitudinal data
oThe experience sampling approach goes even further; gathers data from people throughout the
day, literally "sampling" from the totality of their daily experiences
oIn experimental research, researchers take a more active role by manipulating one element of a
phenomenon to determine its effects on the rest of the phenomenon
othe starting point in every experiment is the dependent variable - the effect or outcome the
researchers want to understand
othe independent variable is the possible cause
oexperimental researchers often argue about the issue of external validity- whether the results of
an experiment apply in other situations
oin archival research the researcher examines existing data that have already been gathered,
usually for an unrelated purpose, by someone else
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