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Chapter 2

PSYCH356 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Case Method, Ibm Officevision, Face Validity

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Richard Eibach

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Chapter 2: Personality Research Methods
- In science, the exploration of the unknown is called research
o The essential aspect of research is the gathering of data
Personality Data
- Personality is manifested by all of the characteristic ways in which the individual thinks,
feels, and behaves (psychological triad)
- An individual might be deeply afraid of certain things, or attracted to particular kinds of
people, or obsessed with accomplishing some highly personal and idiosyncratic goals
o The observable aspects of personality are best characterized as clues
- Clues may abound, but the trick is to interpret them correctly
o Fuder’s second law: there are no perfect indicators of personality, there are
only clues, and clues are always ambiguous
o Fuder’s third law: something beats nothing, two times out of three
Always gather information no matter what, even if it seems misleading
Four Kinds of Clues
- Ask the person directly: S Data (self-judgments)
o The person simply tells the psychologist (usually on a questionnaire) the degree
to which he is dominant, friendly, or conscientious
May be done on a 9-point scale (1-9) or person reading a statement such
as I usuall doiate the disussios I hae ith othes then answering
true or false
o According to most research, the way people describe themselves by and large
matches the way they are described by others
o The piiple ehid “ Data is that the old’s est epet aout ou pesoalit
is probably you
o Contains face validity they are intended to measure what they seem to
- Ask somebody who knows: I Data judgets by kowledgeable iforats
o Gathering the opinions of the people who know that person well in daily life
o Ke aspet of ifoats’ koledge is that they are well-acquainted with the
individual they are describing
o I data are judgments
I data is judgmental, subjective, and irreducibly human
o More than 1 judgment of the same person (multiple informants/acquaintances)
- Life outcomes: L Data
o Verifiable, concrete, real-life facts that may hold psychological significance
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