Rec 100: Chapter 9 Textbook Notes
Rec 100: Chapter 9 Textbook Notes

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University of Waterloo
Recreation and Leisure Studies
REC 100
Diana Parry

Chapter 9 Leisure and the Changing Workplace Defining Work  Work may include paid employment, studying, looking for work, unpaid housework, etc.  What seems like work to one person may be viewed as leisure to another person  Work – employment activities undertaken by an individual for financial compensation The Relationship between Work and Leisure  Dumazedier theorized that increasing automation in the workplace would result in feelings of boredom, alienation, and loss of meaning in one’s work o Leisure would replace work as the central focus in people’s lives (“leisure society”) o Employees would choose where to work based on recreation opportunities both in the local community and provided by the employer  Wilensky and Parker – spillover and compensation o Spillover hypothesis – qualities, characteristics and attitudes toward tasks people perform at work would be carried over or reflected in their leisure choices  Ex. spillover optimistic – individuals who are highly engaged in their work also become actively involved in personally/socially beneficial leisure activities  Ex. spillover pessimistic – people who are bored/find little meaning in work would likely choose leisure activities requiring minimal input (sitting on couch) o Compensation hypothesis – leisure experiences are chosen that satisfy needs NOT addressed in the work environment; can be either aggressive or upgrading  Aggressive: people that engage in risk-taking leisure activities as a means of psychological compensation for the dull routine experienced at work everyday  Upgrading: when a worker chooses activities that allow some measure of creativity or meaning not found in work; parking lot attendant might be part of a music group and enjoy rehearsing and performing during his/her leisure time  Segmentation: a sharp split between leisure and work  Leads to psychological strain and social instability  Seen more in those engaged in unskilled manual labour  Fusion: activities and attitudes of work and leisure become more and more similar and integrated  Seen more in those with “careers” The Changing Workplace  Many changes due to advances in technology (work at home, on the bus, etc.)  Casual work, part time, self-employment, flexible schedules, etc. Models of Employment  Many new types of employment under the category of non-standard or precarious jobs: o Part-time employment – less than 30 hours per week at a main job o Temporary employment – contract, seasonal, casual, pre-determined end date o Self-employment – no paid employees o Multiple job-holders – 2 or more jobs at the same time  2001 – 4/10 (or 40%) of employed Canadians were engaged in non-standard work  Most people with non-standard jobs have a lower income level and are less likely to receive employee benefits Alternative Work Arrangements  Traditional work week is no longer the norm for Canadians; long hours, evening/weekend work now shape lives and routines in a very different pattern Time  Ontario employees can’t be required to work more than 48 hours/week (overtime after 44)  Very long work hours is prevalent in well-educated, professional works w/ high income jobs  2003 – 1/8 full time employees worked more than 50 hours/week  “time crunch” - longer work hours result in higher levels of tim
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