Rec 100: Chapter 15 Textbook Notes

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Recreation and Leisure Studies
REC 100
Diana Parry

Chapter 15 Gender and Leisure Gender Versus Sex  Sex refers to one’s biological assignment of male or female  Gender refers to how society determines expectations and behaviour regarding masculinity (tough, aggressive, heterosexual) and femininity (soft, nurturing, compassionate) o Our conceptualization of masculinity/femininity translate into gender role expectations  “gender” is not in our genes – it is a social process that is constantly created and recreated through human interaction and social life (“sex” is in our genes; biologically determined) o Gender is commonly referred to as a social construction – humans produce and reproduce it in their social interactions as opposed to being biologically determined The Evolution of Gender Research with Leisure Studies  Stages of evolution of gender research:  1 stage – “male scholarship” o Women were invisible and it was assumed there was a universal leisure experience  2 stage – compensatory phase o Scholarship was still defined by men, but it was recognized that women ought to be a research consideration as well o “add women and stir” stage rd  3 stage – “bifocal scholarship” o Documented differences in women’s and men’s leisure habits and patterns o Documented sex differences o Starting point for the inclusion of women’s leisure experiences  4 stage – “feminist scholarship” (woman-centred research) o Focused on the conditions women face in their day-to-day lives and framed those experiences within a broader social context o Research conducted by, for, and with women th  5 stage – “new scholarship” or “gender scholarship” o All of us (men and women) live in a totally gendered society so behaviour can be better understood by examining the experiences of women and men within that framework o Leisure of women cannot be universalized and no one female or male voice exists o Outcome: appreciation of diversity within and between groups of men and women o Appreciates that both men and women are affected by the cultural connotations of gender, which has implications for the leisure of both groups Feminist Theory in Leisure Research  Most feminists are dedicated to eliminating patriarchal social systems through which the distribution of power, benefits, and burdens are not equal o Patriarchy – the status of one group (men) is placed over that of another (women)  Privilege, power, domination  Feminist theories - 4 main approaches: o Liberal o Marxist o Radical o Socialist  Feminism – a framework that embodies “equity, empowerment and social change for men and women” The Role of Leisure in Reproducing Gender  Sex-typing and sex segregation of leisure activities is reflected in, for example, the disproportionate number of men compared to women joining ice hockey and football teams and the disproportionate number of women compared to men signing up for dancing and quilting classes o Metheny – sociologist who studied gender stereotyping of sports  Found the majority of sports to be considered appropriate for men or (masculine), but a # of sports were considered more appropriate for women  Gender stereotyping of sports is based on gender roles and expectations  Sports are categorize
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