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Social Development Studies
SDS 150R
Steve Spencer

Freud asserted that infant weaning practices were central to the attachment process Erikson believed this was important but so was responding to the infants other needs by talking to them comforting him and so onAttachment theory the view that the ability and need to form an attachment relationship early in life are genetic characteristics of all human beings ethological perspective Affectional bond the emotional tie to an infant experienced by a parent Attachment the emotional tie to a parent experienced by an infant from which the child derives security Ethologists believe that the first 2 years of life constitute a sensitive period for attachment in human infants They claim that infants who fail to form a close relationship with a primary caregiver are at risk for future social and personality problems Reactive attachment disorder a disorder that appears to prevent a child from forming close social relationships Synchrony a mutual interlocking pattern of attachment behaviors shared by a parent and a child Dads who get involved with the daytoday care of their babies seem to develop stronger attachment relationships with their babies Bowlby suggested four phases in the development of the infants attachment Phase 1 nonfocused orienting and signalling birth to 3 monthsproximity promoting Phase 2 focus on one or more figures 3 to 6 months Phase 3 secure base behavior 6 to 24 months Phase 4 internal modal 24 months and beyond Stranger anxiety expressions of discomfort such as clinging to the mother in the presence of strangers Separation anxiety expressions of discomfort such as crying when separated from an attachment figure The above two behaviors appear once the child has developed a clear attachment at about 6 to 8 months Fear of strangers apparently appear first Social referencing infants use of others facial expressions as a guide to their own emotions Affect dysregulation an interaction pattern in which a caregivers emotional responses to an infant interfere with the babys ability to learn how to regulate his or her emotions responding to the childs anger with more anger
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