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Soc 101 Week Two Readings

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SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Soc 101 Week Two Readings- Chapter 3 & 4 Chapter Three: Modern Social Theories Gramsci’s Concept of Hegemony  Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) – Communist part of Italy  Agreed with Marx, struggle of the classes  Diverged when it came to HOW the ruling class ruled  Domination: direct physical and violent coercion by police, military  social boundaries  Hegemony: domination through ideological control and consent  Superstructure: state and civil society  Hegemony not static Feminist Theories Second Wave: white, middle class, hetero educated woman  1960s North America  Understanding woman as a coherent social group with a common experience as women  Patriarchy: a pervasive and complex social and cultural system if male domination  Dorothy Smith o Recognizes variation between experience with men and women. Women are dominated by men o Thinks classical theories are androcentric, male centered o Sociology that retains the presence of an active subject o Micro approach: talk to the people you study o Ruling: exercise of power that shapes people’s actions and their lives Third Wave  Challenge the coherence of the category of woman  Bell Hooks – pen name o Black feminist thought o Critics separation of race and sex o When someone says Black think male, woman think white o Goal: liberation of ALL PEOPLE o Household space for refuge, resistance and solidarity from racism Post Structrualist Theory -Scientific knowledge or absolutely truth cannot stand outside power relations -How knowledge is socially produced Michel Foucault  Power as oppression- repressive hypothesis  truth is opposed to power and can therefore play a liberating role  Agency: capacity for self-directed action  To know something is to exercise power  Discourses: a system of meaning that governs how we think, act, speak about a particular thing/issue  Discipline: the means by which we become motivated to produce particular realities  Power operates by producing some behaviours while discouraging others  Discipline can work through surveillance  Normalization: some practices and ways of living are marked as normal and others abnormal  Resistance to modern disciplinary power is not manifested revolution but rather within power relations Queer Theory -We’re all the same = deserve same treatment -Difference as the basis for political and intellectual endeavours -Deconstruct sexual identities  Desire: sexual wants and attractions o Disrupt categories of normal sexuality and acceptable sexuality o Hard to think outside normal/abnormal because categories aren’t value neutral  Language o How language is related to power o Language vehicle for knowledge o Language- value-laden not neutral description o Normal-good, right o Abnormal- bad, wrong  Identity- sense of self that is socially produced, is fluid, is multiple o Tied to connections with others o Constructed through social relations and through discourses around gender and sexuality o Therefore no core identities Post-Colonial Theory -Political and cultural effects of colonialism -Imperialism: conquest of land, resources and people’s labour; the ideas, practices and attitudes of colonizers -Colonialism: effects of imperialism including concrete and ideological effects within colonized territories Said’s Concept of Orientalism  Edward Said (1935-2003)  Orientalism: discourse of power that creates a false distinction between a superior west and an inferior east 1. Academic Orientalism: Produced by academics, government, historians, sociologists about orient 2. Imaginative Orientalism: Representation making a basic distinction between orient and occident 3. Institutional Orientalism: Institutions created by Europeans to gain authority, alter and rule Canada and Colonial and Gendered Orientalism -develop rich and powerful nation after independence -Internal Conflict: native right  residential schools -Hijn Park- 2002 six Asian women shot at university, media coverage reassertion of gendered orientalism scripts, Asians morally and culturally inferior to the west Anti-Racism Theories Critical Race Theory  1981 students protest at Harvard Law School  Race, Racism and America class  Racism endemic to American Life  Skeptic toward dominate Regan claims of neutrality, objectivity, colour blindness and meritocracy  Challenges a historicism and insist on a contextually historical analysis of the law  Value in drawing on experiences of those who have experienced racism  Draws on many traditions: Marxism, feminism, post-structuralism and liberalism  Racism exists simultaneously with sexism classism and heterosexism, all society must be
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