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Chapter 13

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 101
Professor
Barry Mc Clinchey
Semester
Winter

Description
Mass Media 11/18/2012 1:11:00 PM 1.Mass Media through Time  mass communication: the transmission of messages by a person or group through a device to a large audience o e.g. flyers as advertisement  mass media: devices designed to communicate messages to a mass audience Prehistoric Cave Art  Paintings and engravings on cave walls communicating ideas and emotions during Upper Paleolithic era Cuneiform, Hieroglyphics, and the Alphabet  Sumerians of Mesopotamia were the first to invent a form of writing called cuneiform around 3500 bce o Cuneiform is a wedge shaped writing developed by the ancient Sumerians  Between 4000 and 3000 bce Egyptians developed hieroglyphic writing o Hieroglyphics are made up of individual characters o Some are images, some require translation  Egyptians responsible for introducing papyrus which was an early form of writing paper developed  2000 years later around 1500 bce the Greeks developed a phonetic alphabet uses letters to represent spoken sounds, enabling the expression of complex ideas From block printing to moveable type  Block printing: a process in which wooden blocks are engraved with images and text, inked , and then pressed onto paper  Johannes Gutenberg‟s printing press had a tremendous movement on human social development o Movable type: an invention which allowed individual letters or images to be moved without influencing the surrounding text Newspapers  Emerged across Europe  Oldest newspaper, Sweden‟s Post-och Inrikes Tidningar 1645  Halifax Gazette 1752, first Canadian Newspaper The Telegraph  Samual Morse‟s telegraph, patented in 1843, which used a keypad to send short and long electrical pulses called Morse code  This is done through telegraph lines to be received and translated at the other end The Phonograph  Thomas Edison‟s invention of the phonograph ushered in sound  Phonautograph, was intended to record sounds visually, not to play them back Moving Pictures  Joseph Antonie Ferdinand Plateau, in 1832 developed what he called phenakistoscope, which consisted of two spinning disks that gave the impression of movement  1877, Eadweard Muybridge used that linked 24 still cameras alongside a racetrack so that as a horse and rider went by, a string tripped each camera‟s shutter and made consecutive still photographs  1888 Edison developed a technique whereby photographic film could run rapidly across a camera‟s structure  first theatre in USA, Nickelodeon Radio  Development began in the 1860s when Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves  1886, German physicist Heinrich Rudolph Hertz show that fluctuations of electric current could be projected into space as radio waves  Guglielmo Marconi sent and received his first radio signal in Italy 1895 Television  First person to build a working mechanical television was German student Paul Gottlieb Nipkow in 1880  Able to send images through wires and rotating metal disk  Television really began in 1927, Ernst Alexanderson broadcasted pictures and sound through the air and receive them on a television 2. Mass Media Today  traditional mass communication technologies push content to their audiences, new technologies enable consumers to pull content that reflects their particular and unique interests whenever they want  Web 2.0: interactive online tools dedicated to promoting a greater sense of community  75.4 percent of Canadian homes had a personal computer  68.1 percent had internet access  2009 80% of Canadians aged 16 and older used the internet for personal reasons Satellite television and radio  Satellite stations target a broad audience and offer hundreds of channels, with hundreds being in HD  Two largest providers of radio are XM Radio and Sirius which combined together in 2011 Cellphones  In 2012 , 6 billion cellphones used worldwide  “mobile phone has now moved beyond being a mere technical device to becoming a key „social object‟ present in every aspect of a user‟s life” o become a user‟s personal sphere of objects o gives users the impression that they are connected to the world, and not alone  digital sociality: a social landscape in which new communication technologies are promoting human interaction and contact o criticized for the reason of poor spelling and grammar Text Messaging  Most common form of mobile communication among young people  1 trillion instant messages sent worldwide in 2006  some see it as a negative effect on writing ability, others see it as an opportunity for artistic expression  Miyake‟s research found that youth often expressed their individuality by creating new and artistic forms of written language that deviated from the largely conservative Japanese culture Twitter  Tweets up to 140 characters long, offer unique glimpse in moods , thoughts, and activities of society at large Blogs  Blogs grew from 70 million in 2007 to 160 million in 2010 o 70000 new blogs appearing everyday  blog: an online diary in which an individual posts personal reflections on events, specific topics, and/or experiences  RSS (really simple syndication): a web feed format that informs subscribers of new information posted on online services Wiki‟s  A wiki is an online body of information to which anyone can add or modify content  Allows everyone to participate as a community  Information is available right away Podcasts  Podcast is a technology that allows the automatic downloading of audio and video files that can then be played back on personal computers or loaded onto portable players  Narrowcast: a transmission of data to specialized audiences who subscribe to the service  Demassification: a process by which the mass audience is fragmented into small groups or niches to appeal to unique interests Youtube  2million views per day, by 2006 was 100million  played important role in challenging oppressive political regimes by making available video clips that show abusive or repressive actions  example of how young people are attracted to new media forms that allow them to control their media experience Social Networking sites  Facebook and Myspace designed to provide users with a series of tools to help them connect with friends  2008, Myspace was web‟s largest social networking site 3. Canadian Insights into Mass Media: Innis and McLuhan Harold Innis  Widely viewed as inspiring a uniquely Canadian perspective on media that would directly influence his more famous colleague Marshall McLuhan o Every society needs to transcend what he called the problems of space and time o All societies are able to solve these problems do so thro
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