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Chapter 6

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SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Socialization and Social Interaction Chapter 6 Becoming “Human”  2 basic approaches to develop personality o Personality: individual’s relatively stable pattern of behaviours and feelings o Biological approach  Our actions and feelings stem from our biological roots o Environmental approach  We are products of our socialization  Lifelong process by which we learn our culture, develop personality and become functioning members of society  Social interaction encompasses all of ways people interact in social settings while recognizing each person’s subjective experiences and intentions Nature Argument: Being Born You  Most of behaviour determined by genetic makeup o Sociologists believe nurture is more important  Women better at expressing emotions and remembering details  Men have 2.5 times brain space devoted for sexual drive, action and aggression  Sociobiology: science that uses evolutionary theory and genetic inheritance to examine biological roots of social behaviour o Humans evolved to secure survival of species o Argues: physical and behavioral differences we see in women and men are result f million years of natural selection  Evolutionary psychology: Darwinian inheritance can explain contemporary human behaviour o A relabeled form of sociobiology o Men ages 16 – 20 have sense of invincibility  Empirical support for overall assertion that human behaviour determined by genetics remain contentious o Limited support in social sciences The Nurture Argument: Learn to be you  Effects of Social Isolation o Children taught to do things o Social reality is constructed by people every time they interact with others Development of Self: Sociological Insights  Self: one’s identity, comprising a set of learned values and attitudes that develops through social interaction and defines one’s self image o Self image: introspective composition of various features and attributes that people see themselves as o Key component of personality Imagining how Others See Us: C.H.Cooley  Concept of looking glass self o What we think of ourselves is influenced by how we imagine other people see us  To be aware of oneself, one must be aware of society o Self consciousness and social consciousness are inseparable  “Imagine imaginations” o Sociologists could not hope to understand social world until they could project themselves into minds of others  See world as people did Understanding Others and Ourselves: G.H. Mead  Self is composed of 2 complementary elements o I: self that is spontaneous, creative, impulsive and unpredictable o Me: socialized element of the self  Think about how to behave so that you don’t embarrass yourself  Control spontaneous impulses of the I  Significant other: people we want to impress or gain approval from  Generalized other: compilation of attributes associated with average member of society o Represents individual’s appreciation that other members of society behave within certain socially accepted guidelines and rules  Role- taking: assuming position of another to better understand person’s perspective o Critical for empathizing with other’s situations Socialization and Social Interaction Chapter 6  Children pass through 3 stages: o Preparatory stage (birth – 3)  Experiences with interaction with others are to imitate  Positive and negative reinforcement; children develop I but me is forming in the background o Play stage (3-5)  Learn about themselves and society  Me continues to grow to receive positive reinforcement o Game stage (elementary school years)  Become proficient at taking multiple roles  Primary socialization: occurs when people learn attitudes, values and appropriate behaviours for individuals in their culture  Secondary socialization: occurs through participation in more specific groups with defined roles and expectations o Part time jobs, volunteer activities Development of Self: Psychological Insights Psychosexual Development: Sigmund Freud  People behave according to drives and experiences of which they are not always aware  Unconscious mind is full of memories of events, experiences, and traumas from childhood  Defence mechanism: ways in which individuals manage painful memories  3 unique biological drives and impulses o id: biological drives and impulses that strive for instant gratification  unconscious, selfish, irrational, unsocialized, and focused on instant gratification o superego: norms, values, morals that are learned through socialization  internalized social standards for given group and helps to form person’s conscience o ego: intermediary between id and superego that provides socially acceptable
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