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SOC 101 (156)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Mass Media Through Time.docx

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SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Chapter 17 - Mass Media Mass Media Through Time  Mass communication: transmission of messages by person or group through device to large audience o Printing flyers, etc  Mass Media: devices designed to communicate messages to a mass audience o Any medium Prehistoric Cave Art  Paintings and engravings on cave walls during Upper Paleolithic era  Images were of people and animals  Assume that artists understood people would see images after they were created  Easy to understand and interpret From Hieroglyphics to the Alphabet  An early form of visual communication developed by Egyptians  Simple graphical representations while others are abstract needing translation  Papyrus: early form of writing paper developed by Egyptians o Lightweight, and enabled transported messages  Phonetic alphabet o System of writing developed by early Greeks that uses letter to represent spoken sounds, enabling the expression of complex ideas o Written left to right, representing spoken language sounds From Block Printing to Movable Type  Block printing: T’ang dynasty o Process in which wooden blocks are engraved with images and text, inked and pressed onto paper o Used to print cards, calendars and early notices; advertisements o Relatively labour intensive  Movable type: Gutenburg’s invention that allowed individual letters or images be moved without influencing surrounding text o Printing press Newspapers  Oldest is Sweden’s Post-och Inrikes Tidningar o 1645  First Canadian paper was Halifax Gazette in 1752 The Telegraph  Uses keyboard to send short and long electrical pulses called Morse code through telegrap lines and translated  Run lines across tracks allowing messages to be sent from one place to another with tap of telegraph key  More efficient and timely than sending printed documents o Primary means of sending messages over long distances o Used to transmit train orders and other communications The Phonograph  1877, Thomas Edison o phonograph used spinning cylinder and needle that scratches surface as vibrations of sound were passed through a mouthpiece o Parisian typesetter developed similar device before Edison’s  Phonautograph; recorded sounds visually, not play them back  Had barrel shaped horn attached to stylus, etching sound waves onto sheets of paper  Never intended for listening but visual presentation Moving Pictures  Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau o Phenakistoscope o 2 spinning disks, giving impression of movement  Eadweard Muybridge o Linked 24 still cameras to take pictures of a running horse o Strung together to trick mind to infer movement  Thomas Edison captured full motion imagery o Photographic film could run rapidly across camera’s shutter, exposing film in frames  First movie theatre is Nickelodeon 1905  Ouimetoscope in Montreal, with 2 screenings a day o Tickets were 10 – 35 cents Radio  1860;s with James Clerk Maxwell Chapter 17 - Mass Media  1886 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz showed fluctuations of electric current could be projected into space as radio waves  Guglielmo Marconi sent and received first radio signal in Italy 1895  Commercial broadcasters became interested to reach mass audience o Key was it didn’t require wires and allowed single signal to be transmitted to anyone with a receiver Television  Paul gottieb nipkow o Send images through wires and rotating metal disk  Electric telescope  Had 18 lines of resolution  Campbell Swinton and Boris Rosing o Mechanical scanner systems and cathode ray electronic systems  First electronic device was made by Philo Taylor Farnsworth Internet  1967  American Department of defense contracted to design computer network as a vehicle for communication that would be impervious to nuclear strike Mass Media Today  Greater control over own entertainment and communication  New technologies pull content that reflect particular and unique interests  Web 2.0: interactive online tools dedicated to promoting greater sense of community Satellite Television and Radio  Expanding and flourishing  Satellite stations target broad audience and offer hundreds of channels  Personal video recorders means viewers can pause live programming, record shows for later, and remove commercials  XM radio and Sirius plan t merge into single company Cellphones  Moved beyond being mere technical divide to becoming key social object present in every aspect of user’s life  Attachment to their phones  Impression they are connected to the world outside  Contributes to bad spelling and grammar, distraction from tasks that require concentration  Digital Sociality: social landscape in which new communication technologies are promoting human interaction and contact Text Messaging  Common form of mobile communication among young people o 1 trillion instant messages sent daily o opportunity for artistic expression  helps alleviate social anxiety  nothing is faster than mass text messaging Music File Sharing  1999 when Shawn fanning working out of his dorm created Napster o peer to peer software to share digital music files for free o fastest growing application in history of internet  biggest threat to recording industry o no royalty payments o forced it into bankruptcy for copyright infringement Blogs  shortened form of web log  online diary in which one reflects on events, specific topics or personal experiences  RSS: Really Simple Syndication o Web feed format that informs subscribers of new information posted on online services Wikis  Online body of info that is designed to allow anyone access to add or modify content  Wikis allow everyone to participate as a community Podcasts  Technology that allows automatic downloading of audio and video files that can be played back on personal computers or loaded onto portable players  Narrowcast: transmission of data to specialized audiences who subscribe to the service Chapter 17 - Mass Media  Demassification: audience is fragmented into small groups that mass media use as bass to develop specific content Youtube  Created by Steve Chan in 2005 for easy to use website allowing users to share personal videos  Third most visited site in the world  Important role in challenging oppressive political regimes by making video clips available about abusive or repressive actions by government, etc Social Networking Sites  Myspace launched for social networkin
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